Trondheim, Norway
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Naevdal E.,Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research | Olaussen J.O.,Trondheim Business School | Skonhoft A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Ecological Economics | Year: 2012

During the last few decades wildlife trophy hunting has increasingly replaced traditional meat hunting. The economics of trophy hunting is analyzed with the Scandinavian moose (Alces alces) serving as an example. A four-stage model (calf, yearlings, adult female and adult male) is formulated. The calves, yearlings, and females are hunted for meat, while the males are hunted for trophies and where the demand for trophy hunting depends on price and quality. We find that trophy hunting boosts the male population and yields a high ratio of males to females. The main reason for this result is that we consider a management scheme with well defined property rights and not of the 'open-access' type, and where the key mechanism is the quality demand effect in trophy hunting. In an extended model where ecological theory of animal adoption to hunting is assumed to influence the biology through fertility we still find that trophy hunting boosts the male stock. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Pettersen I.J.,Trondheim Business School | Nyland K.,Trondheim Business School
Health Policy | Year: 2012

Objective: This paper describes the implementation of hospital governance under the Norwegian hospital reforms 2001-2008. Methods: Data are analysed from interviews with key decision makers in hospital boards and among hospital managers (N= 13), and a survey among a national sample of board members (N= 130). The analysis integrates findings from both the qualitative and quantitative data, which are analysed according to the theoretical framework. Results: The findings indicate a transition of the roles given to the hospital board from a model with professional and autonomous boards towards two different roles. These roles are a mixture between the tasks of a formal decision body and the behaviour of a body to secure the interests of different stakeholders. Conclusions: The hospital boards have to act in contexts of ambiguity and uncertainty. In such situations, a wide decision space will face the boards with problems related to emotions and opportunism. Thus, the principals in the context of public sector hospitals have to balance among strong political influence, hierarchical modes of governance and discretion given to the boards. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Heggem I.O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Jakobsen T.G.,Trondheim Business School
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

In this article we explore the link between economic globalisation and individual attitudes toward government responsibility for provision of its citizens. Two opposing views on the effect of globalisation is presented, along with a third where the argument is that the direction is different for developed and developing countries. The hypotheses are tested using individual-level data from the World Values Survey, together with a measure of economic globalisation taken from the KOF Index. Our sample is drawn from 79 countries from all continents. The results show that there is a general rightist effect of globalisation on individual vs. government responsibility. However, the findings also revealed a curvilinear effect: the slope changes from leftist to rightist after a certain turning point has been reached. The evidence indicates that economic globalisation has an effect on public attitudes on economic questions. When people realise their country is competitive in the global market, they shift their attitudes to the right. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Olaussen J.O.,Trondheim Business School | Liu Y.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Aquaculture Economics and Management | Year: 2011

This article explores to what extent escaped farmed salmon from fish farms affect the willingness-to-pay for recreational fishing of Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. This is a first attempt to explore the economic consequences of escaped farmed species in terms of the anglers' willingness-to-pay for fishing permits working through the relationship between the price of fishing permits and the share of escaped farmed salmon. The empirical analysis is based on the results from a contingent valuation survey conducted in Norway. It is found that the presence of escaped farmed salmon in Norwegian rivers may have severe economic consequences on the willingness-to-pay for recreational fishing with a reduction of up to 85% compared to a situation with a 'pure' wild salmon stock. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Liu Y.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Olaf Olaussen J.,Trondheim Business School | Skonhoft A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Marine Policy | Year: 2011

The Salmon industry in Norway includes three sectors, namely sea and river fishing for wild salmon, and salmon farming, or aquaculture. The three sectors provide different social, economic and cultural benefits to society, but also face many problems and challenges. They have different interests, practices, traditions and audiences, and are also administered by different authorities and regulated under varying management regimes and legislations. On the one hand, they complement each other in terms of product supply, employment creation and income; on the other hand, they face conflicts over management objectives and strategies. This paper provides an overview of the salmon sectors associated with their status, challenges and management regimes. It further analyzes their interests and conflicts over economic contribution and management. Finally, some potential solutions are suggested in an attempt to solve these conflicts. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Westgaard S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Estenstad M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Seim M.,Trondheim Business School | Frydenberg S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Energy Economics | Year: 2011

In this paper, the relationship between Gas oil and Brent Crude oil futures prices is investigated. The analysis is based on daily price series for five different contract lengths traded on ICE Futures Europe. The price series and their first differences are tested for stationarity. Linear relationships between the pair-wise Gas oil and Crude oil contracts are then tested for co-integration. A co-integrated relationship is found for the 1 and 2 month contracts covering data from 1994 to 2009, and Error Correction Models are established to estimate the relationships. No co-integrated relationships are found for the 3, 6 and 12 month contracts covering the period 2002-2009, nor for the 1 and 2 month contracts for this period. The futures prices for this period are collected from a volatile market, including hurricane Katrina, the economic boom and the following financial crises which might explain these results. Thus, in such volatile periods the spread between Gas oil and Crude oil is likely to deviate, and it might take several years until it reverts to its equilibrium value. For energy traders and hedgers, this will imply that exposures to the crack spread should be treated with great care in such market environments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kyaw K.,Trondheim Business School | Paltrinieri N.,Sintef
Safety and Reliability of Complex Engineered Systems - Proceedings of the 25th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2015 | Year: 2015

The occurrence of a major accident in today’s industry may have several types of direct and indirect consequences. However, the most common techniques of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) mainly focus on direct consequences of an accident on humans and equipment and disregard relatively secondary repercussions, such as damage to the company reputation. This type of consequence may have a serious impact on the company and lead to negative cascading events for the local community, such as the layoff of personnel and the decline of satellite companies. This paper investigates the cost of reputational damage to the industrial company where major accidents have occurred. Such accidents offer excellent natural experimental setups in which one can closely study the cost of reputational damage, an indirect cost of an accident. The reputational cost is measured by the loss in the market value of company Total SA that has experienced major accidents. The analysis covers the accidents occurred in 2001 in Toulouse (France) and in 2005 in Buncefield (UK). Using event study methodology, losses due to the accidents are measured by cumulative abnormal returns (CARs) in the period following the accidents. The results obtained from the study demonstrate that the reputational damage may exceed other economic losses and should be considered a priority for the industry. For this reason, an improvement of current QRA techniques is suggested in order to account for the economic impact of reputational risk. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Pettersen I.J.,Trondheim Business School
International Journal of Health Planning and Management | Year: 2011

Hospitals are frequently changing managerial practices due to numerous public sector reforms taking place. In general, these reforms include the making and monitoring of contracts that regulate relations between the hospitals and their professional staffs. The aim of this paper is to discuss some main characteristics of the contracts that regulate the perceived relations between physicians as employees and the public hospital as employer. The theoretical framework is based on a contract theory approach. The empirical data is based on survey data from full-time employed physicians in the medical and surgical divisions in one of the largest university hospitals in Norway. This study shows that perceived obligations and psychological contracts indicate high degree of relational contracts between the hospital and the physicians. These socio-cultural elements should be recognized as important mechanisms of coordination and communication when policy makers and hospital managers are designing hospital management control systems. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Pettersen I.J.,Trondheim Business School | Nyland K.,Trondheim Business School
Journal of Health, Organisation and Management | Year: 2012

Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the legitimacy of budgets as management control processes in hospitals after comprehensive reforms were implemented in the Norwegian hospital sector in 2002. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs qualitative interviews with top level clinical managers in three large hospitals. Findings: The study shows a variety of practices among the clinical managers as to management control adjustments. The managers use different strategies in order to cope with the budget frames. Research limitations/implications: This paper contributes to the current debate and research relating to the budgeting and performance management practices in hospital settings. Practical implications: These findings contribute to contextual knowledge that is relevant in understanding the diverse practices of clinical managers in hospitals as complex service producing organizations. Social implications: The findings give information to decision makers as to the diversity in management practices within knowledge intensive organizations. Originality/value: The paper challenges the idea that the strategies used by managers can be understood by the concepts of the means-end rationality prescribed in most of the reforms introduced into the hospital sector. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Jakobsen T.G.,Trondheim Business School
War: An Introduction to Theories and Research on Collective Violence | Year: 2011

Many students have come to the study of war and peace from a background heavily influenced by media exposure and political commitment. Some tend to see rebellion against autocratic rule mainly in terms of political ideals and the struggle for justice. The academic study of civil war, on the other hand, in recent years has focused more on the opportunity factors, even claiming that the greed of rebel leaders can play an important role in driving an insurrection. Discovering this, some students have become disillusioned, but many have taken up the challenge to show that wars in general and civil wars in particular are also fought for more than material gain. This book offers a balanced assessment of grievance and opportunity theories, and will serve as food for thought as the readers attempt to hammer out their own projects and move the field forward. © 2011 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

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