Time filter

Source Type

Wokingham, United Kingdom

Kinnear N.,TRL Inc | Kelly S.W.,University of Strathclyde | Stradling S.,Napier University | Thomson J.,University of Strathclyde
Accident Analysis and Prevention

This study examines whether there is evidence that converging theories from the domains of risk and decision making, neuroscience, and psychology can improve our understanding of how drivers learn to appraise on-the-road hazards. Within the domain of decision making it is suggested that there are two distinct ways in which humans appraise risk: risk as feelings and risk as analysis. Meanwhile, current neurological theory, in the form of the Somatic Marker Hypothesis, supports the role of feelings and emotion as an evolved automated system of human risk appraisal that biases judgment and decision making. This study used skin conductance responses (SCRs) to measure learner, novice and experienced drivers' psycho-physiological responses to the development of driving hazards. Experienced drivers were twice as likely to produce an SCR to developing hazards as novice drivers and three times as likely when compared with learner drivers. These differences maintained significance when age, gender and exposure were controlled for. Further analysis revealed that novice drivers who had less than 1000 miles driving experience had anticipatory physiological responses similar to learner drivers, whereas novices who had driven more than 1000 miles had scores approaching those of experienced drivers. This demonstrated a learning curve mediated by driving experience supporting experiential learning as proposed within the Somatic Marker Hypothesis. A differentiation between cognitive and psycho-physiological responses was also found supporting theory that distinguishes between conscious and non-conscious risk appraisal. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

The study describes the results of research carried out into the design of a parallel and resource-efficient solution to the real-data polyphase discrete Fourier transform (DFT), or PDFT. The solution is able to exploit both the real-valued nature of the data and the parallel processing capabilities of the computing technology - assumed to be a field-programmable gate array - to yield a solution with a low size, weight and power requirement. A parallel computing architecture has been devised, based upon batch processing, whereby pipelined operation of the polyphase filter bank (PFB) is achieved using shared resources and pipelined operation of the real-data DFT using the resource-efficient regularised fast Hartley transform (RFHT). The PFB outputs are appropriately re-ordered for input to the RFHT by means of a suitably defined finite state machine. The resulting design, which includes a flexible up-sampling capability (with rational over-sampling factor) to address the problem of adjacent channel interference, trade-off time complexity against space complexity in order to satisfy the associated timing constraints. The solution is also scalable, in terms of the number of channels, so that it might be easily adapted, for new or multiple applications, at minimal re-design effort and cost. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013. Source

This study describes a scheme which enables one to improve the quality of one's own wireless communications, over a given frequency (or frequencies), when in the presence of inter-modulation distortion (IMD). The IMD is generated by one's own power amplifier (PA), when operating over an adjacent band of frequencies, and arises as a result of the non-linear nature of the PA when engaged in the transmission of modulated multi-carrier signals. The distortion appears in the form of inter-modulation products (IMPs), these occurring at multiple frequencies which may potentially coincide with one's communication frequency. The scheme enables one to predict the frequency locations and strengths of the IMPs and, when coincident with the communication frequency, to clear the IMPs from that frequency regardless of the levels of distortion present. The speed at which the IMPs are identified and cleared from the communication frequency - attributable to the efficient exploitation of polynomial arithmetic/algebraic techniques and a fast Fourier transform routine - offers the promise of maintaining reliable communications without having to interrupt the operation of one's own electronic equipment. The low complexity also offers the possibility of an attractive hardware solution with a low size, weight and power requirement. © 2014 The Institution of Engineering and Technology. Source

Benton D.M.,TRL Inc
Journal of the European Optical Society

This paper examines a method for locating within a scene a distribution of an absorbing gas using a passive imaging technique. An oscillatory modulation of the angle of a narrowband dielectric filter located in front of a camera imaging a scene, gives rise to an intensity modulation that differs in regions occupied by the absorbing gas. A preliminary low cost system has been constructed from readily available components which demonstrates how the location of gas within a scene can be implemented. Modelling of the system has been carried out, especially highlighting the transmission effects of the dielectric filter upon different regions of the image. Source

Photonic signal processing is used to implement common mode signal cancellation across a very wide bandwidth utilising phase modulation of radio frequency (RF) signals onto a narrow linewidth laser carrier. RF spectra were observed using narrow-band, tunable optical filtering using a scanning Fabry Perot etalon. Thus functions conventionally performed using digital signal processing techniques in the electronic domain have been replaced by analog techniques in the photonic domain. This technique was able to observe simultaneous cancellation of signals across a bandwidth of 1400 MHz, limited only by the free spectral range of the etalon. © 2013 David M. Benton. Source

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