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Dirks C.,University of Marburg | Scholten B.,Jülich Research Center | Happel S.,TrisKem International | Zulauf A.,University of Marburg | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2010

Cu isotopes (e.g. 64Cu) increasingly find use in radiopharmaceutical applications, accordingly fast and reliable methods for the production of these isotopes are needed. The aim of the presented project is the characterization of a Cu selective extraction chromatographic resin for the fast and selective separation of Cu radionuclides, e.g. from irradiated targets. The characterisation of the resin includes the determination of weight distribution factors D w of Cu, Ni, Zn and other potentially interfering elements and impurities for varying acids and pH values, the influence of macro amounts of Ni and Zn on the extraction of Cu as well as the influence of other potential interferents. Based on the obtained results, a method for the separation of Cu and its purification from irradiated Ni or Zn targets was developed and tested on simulated Ni and Zn targets. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Calmet D.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Ameon R.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety | Bombard A.,TrisKem International | Forte M.,Centro Regionale Of Radioprotezione | And 6 more authors.
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2013

Water is vital to humans and each of us needs at least 1.5. L of safe water a day to drink. Beginning as long ago as 1958 the World Health Organization (WHO) has published guidelines to help ensure water is safe to drink. Focused from the start on monitoring radionuclides in water, and continually cooperating with WHO, the International Standardization Organization (ISO) has been publishing standards on radioactivity test methods since 1978. As reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are an essential requirement for any public health decision based on radioactivity measurements, international standards of tested and validated radionuclide test methods are an important tool for production of such measurements.This paper presents the ISO standards already published that could be used as normative references by testing laboratories in charge of radioactivity monitoring of drinking water as well as those currently under drafting and the prospect of standardized fast test methods in response to a nuclear accident. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Zulauf A.,University of Marburg | Happel S.,TrisKem International | Mokili M.B.,Ecole des Mines de Nantes | Bombard A.,TrisKem International | Jungclas H.,University of Marburg
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2010

The monitoring of long-lived radionuclides is of great importance in the context of the surveillance of nuclear facilities, during their operation as well as during their decommissioning. This is especially true for radionuclides of rather volatile elements, such as chlorine and iodine, the main interest being in 36Cl and 129I. Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) is a widely used measurement technique especially for the determination of 36Cl that requires a thorough and selective sample preparation in order to give accurate results. Sample preparation methods frequently employed such as volatilization and/or repeated precipitation steps can be rather elaborate and time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to develop an 'easy to use' extraction chromatographic resin that allows extraction, and subsequent separation, of chloride and iodide from pretreated environmental and decommissioning samples for their determination via LSC. First results of the characterization of the resin including D w values of Cl-, I- and potential interferents, and of the method development are presented as well as the result of the analysis of a simulated real sample. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Decamp C.,Institute des Radioelements IRE | Happel S.,TrisKem International
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2013

Safety and appropriate management of nuclear waste are of major importance in radioisotope production. Radioiodine has been identified as one of the most dangerous radioelements in terms of radiological effects in case of accidental release; accordingly substantial efforts are made to optimize the iodine capture in liquid effluents to avoid any possible iodine gas release from liquid waste during storage. The IRE (National Institute for Radioelements) produces radioelements such as Mo-99 for nuclear medicine. Its production process results in highly acidic and oxidizing effluents containing iodine which might thus be present in various oxidation states and species. This needs to be taken into account for the development of a decontamination process for these effluents. CL Resin (TrisKem International) is an extraction chromatographic resin showing high selectivity for noble metals over a large number of other elements. The CL Resin retains silver over a wide pH range including high acid concentrations. It was further shown, after being loaded with silver, to strongly retain iodine species forming insoluble complexes with silver making it well suited for use in the given context; XAD-4 Resin (Sigma-Aldrich) on the other hand is known to retain elemental iodine. A mixed bed column based on silver loaded CL Resin and XAD-4 resin was developed and optimized for iodine removal from IRE's process effluents. Prepared mixed bed columns were evaluated by treating multi-curies production process solutions at the IRE. These columns showed high iodine removal from elevated effluent volumes (>10 L) even at flow-rates up to >180 mL min-1. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


PubMed | alda Urquijo s n, Radiation Protection Bureau, Japan Radioisotope Association, LCG Group and 23 more.
Type: | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016

Radiological protection is a matter of concern for members of the public and thus national authorities are more likely to trust the quality of radioactivity data provided by accredited laboratories using common standards. Normative approach based on international standards aims to ensure the accuracy or validity of the test result through calibrations and measurements traceable to the International System of Units. This approach guarantees that radioactivity test results on the same types of samples are comparable over time and space as well as between different testing laboratories. Today, testing laboratories involved in radioactivity measurement have a set of more than 150 international standards to help them perform their work. Most of them are published by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper reviews the most essential ISO standards that give guidance to testing laboratories at different stages from sampling planning to the transmission of the test report to their customers, summarizes recent activities and achievements and present the perspectives on new standards under development by the ISO Working Groups dealing with radioactivity measurement in connection with radiological protection.


Filosofov D.V.,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research | Lebedev N.A.,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research | Radchenko V.,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research | Rakhimov A.V.,Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan | And 2 more authors.
Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange | Year: 2015

In this work, the interactions between the divalent alkaline earth elements (AEE) (Sr, Ba, Ra), the trivalent rare earth elements (REE) (Ce-Lu, Y), and Ac(III) with Sr-resin were investigated in the presence of HNO3, HCl, HBr, HClO4, and HPF6. Distribution coefficients of these ions on the Sr-resin were determined under batch-loading conditions. Lastly, online column separations were performed to demonstrate the utility of these systems. Substantial differences in the behavior of the ions in solutions comprised of the five different acids were observed. These differences can partly be explained by a combination of ion exchange (primary) and extraction (solvation) mechanisms. From a practical point of view, the Sr-resin/HClO4 or Sr-resin/HPF6 systems were demonstrated to be effective for the separation and purification of the different groups of the elements. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Marinov G.M.,Sofia University | Marinova A.P.,Sofia University | Medvedev D.V.,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research | Dadakhanov J.A.,Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan | And 4 more authors.
Radiochimica Acta | Year: 2016

Using radioisotope markers the distribution coefficients (Kd) of the following elements In, Sn, Sb, Te, Bi, Co, Fe, Nb, Sr, Ba, Ag, Cd, Zr, Hf and Ti were determined with different concentrations of HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3 for the extraction chromatographic resin Uranium and TEtraValent Actinides (UTEVA). This data can be used for separation of elements in complex mixtures, as well as for correct assessment of the elements chemistry with higher valences such as 3, 4, 5 or 6. © 2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.


Gharibyan N.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Dailey A.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | McLain D.R.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Bond E.M.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange | Year: 2014

Due to the similar chemical properties between the neighboring trivalent actinide elements americium and curium, their extraction behavior is often perceived as indistinguishable. In this work, the characterization of seven extraction chromatography resins (TEVA, TRU, DGA(N), Actinide, Ln, Ln2, and Ln3) for these trivalent actinides from acidic matrices (HNO3, HCl, and HBr) has provided some evidence to the contrary. In most cases, Am(III) and Cm(III) exhibit identical extraction properties. However, separation is possible with TRU and DGA(N) resins as demonstrated in this study. The extraction shows a strong dependency on the specific anion in solution that follows the order NO3 ->Br->Cl-. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Surman J.J.,Lancaster University | Pates J.M.,Lancaster University | Zhang H.,Lancaster University | Happel S.,Triskem International
Talanta | Year: 2014

A new resin selective for Sr has been developed and characterised for the direct binding of 90Sr from environmental waters with minimal pre-treatment. The new selective resin comprises of a mixture of two extractants, 4,4′(5′)-bis-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 and di(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid, sorbed onto Amberchrom CG-71. Sr uptake is shown to be high (the distribution weight coefficient Dw >100 mL g-1) across a range of environmentally realistic conditions (pH 2-8 and up to 11,500 mg L-1 NaCl, 500 mg L-1 Ca, 400 mg L -1 K and 1300 mg L-1 Mg). The Sr capacity of the resin is shown to be 7.7±0.4 mg g-1, meaning that the resin has a sufficient capacity to quantitatively remove Sr from most environmental water samples. The reasonably fast uptake kinetics of the resin (95±4% of strontium bound within 30 min) results in a resin that is applicable to both batch- and column-type separation procedures. A range of potentially co-extracted radio-elements have been identified and an elution scheme has been developed to separate interferences, including 90Y, from 90Sr. The clean elution of 90Sr permits immediate measurement by radiometric means, with no need for complicated spectral processing or waiting for secular equilibrium between 90Sr and 90Y. The characterised resin is applicable for use in rapid determination procedures, enabling the swift analysis of water samples required by monitoring schemes at contaminated nuclear sites and in the aftermath of nuclear accidents. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Lancaster University and Triskem International
Type: | Journal: Talanta | Year: 2014

A new resin selective for Sr has been developed and characterised for the direct binding of (90)Sr from environmental waters with minimal pre-treatment. The new selective resin comprises of a mixture of two extractants, 4,4(5)-bis-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 and di(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid, sorbed onto Amberchrom CG-71. Sr uptake is shown to be high (the distribution weight coefficient Dw >100 mL g(-1)) across a range of environmentally realistic conditions (pH 2-8 and up to 11,500 mg L(-1) NaCl, 500 mg L(-1) Ca, 400 mg L(-1) K and 1300 mg L(-1) Mg). The Sr capacity of the resin is shown to be 7.70.4 mg g(-1), meaning that the resin has a sufficient capacity to quantitatively remove Sr from most environmental water samples. The reasonably fast uptake kinetics of the resin (954% of strontium bound within 30 min) results in a resin that is applicable to both batch- and column-type separation procedures. A range of potentially co-extracted radio-elements have been identified and an elution scheme has been developed to separate interferences, including (90)Y, from (90)Sr. The clean elution of (90)Sr permits immediate measurement by radiometric means, with no need for complicated spectral processing or waiting for secular equilibrium between (90)Sr and (90)Y. The characterised resin is applicable for use in rapid determination procedures, enabling the swift analysis of water samples required by monitoring schemes at contaminated nuclear sites and in the aftermath of nuclear accidents.

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