Permatasari A.R.,Trisakti University |
Nazri M.J.M.,University of Technology Malaysia
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2016
The emission from FBC is very dependent on a number of operating conditions (temperature, staged air, fuel feed rate, excess air, etc.) and fuel properties. This paper describes the experimental results taken in a staged air fluidized bed combustion laboratory scale, using palm fiber and palm shell as fuels and silica sand as the inert bed material. In this experiment, a variation of excess air and secondary air were measured. Measurement of gas emissions of CO and CO2 concentrations, combustion efficiency and temperature, were taken along the combustor height as well as in flue gas. The experimental results show that the axial temperature profiles decrease successively along the FBC height. The CO emission obtained was lower for the staged- air condition than for the un-staged-air condition. The combustion efficiencies show satisfactory values. © 2016 Author(s).
Arya A.C.,Trisakti University
Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science | Year: 2017
The empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) is the solid waste that is generated at palm oil mills. In 2012 only, it was available in large amounts by more than 50 million tons worldwide. Its utilisation for technical purposes is unfortunately very limited and so far, it is still less value-added. It would be interesting to discover the appropiate technology so that the biomass has an added-value such utilisation for technical and commercial products. Fibre from EFB can be processed to be environmentally-friendly composites by mixing the fbres with renewable binding agents based on starch such as potato starch. There are some options to forming the between product into a composite such as creating a dough base frst that is then laminated and fnally mixed (nonwoven). Experiments to produce possible composites can be done where the combination between product and technology matches so that the fbres are spread randomly and homogenously throughout the body of the composite. The variables for this option of producing a composite with a thickness of 2 mm are a temperature of 180°C, press duration of 5-15 min and pressure of about 10-30 bar where the modulus of elasticity is about 7 GPa. © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.
Trihandini I.,University of Indonesia |
Wiradidjaja Adiwoso A.,Rehabilitation Center |
Erri Astoeti T.,Trisakti University |
Marks L.,Ghent University
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry | Year: 2013
Background: Data on the oral situation of young people with intellectual disabilities are scarce, especially data of children from a developing country. Aim: To describe and to evaluate the oral treatment needs of Special Olympics Special Smiles Athletes in Indonesia between 2004 and 2009. Design: A cross-sectional study data were collected through interviews and clinical examinations using the Special Olympics Special Smiles CDC protocol. Participants: Indonesian Special Smiles athletes; their mean age was 13.46 years ± 2.97. Results: More than 70% of athletes had visible untreated decay. Almost 30% (29.8%) of the athletes had gingival inflammation. Pain in the oral cavity was reported by 28.6%. Athletes who had untreated decay reported 6.67 times (95% CI OR; 4.00-11.14) more pain compared to those who did not have untreated decay. Athletes living in provinces on Java Island had 1.54 times (95% CI OR; 1.15-2.07) more untreated decay compared to the athletes who live in provinces in outer Java Island. 21.63% of the screened athletes were referred to the dentist for urgent treatment. Conclusion: The results suggest that there is an elevated oral treatment need in Indonesian Special Smiles population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.
Nurrohman H.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University |
Nurrohman H.,Trisakti University |
Nikaido T.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University |
Takagaki T.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University |
And 3 more authors.
Dental Materials | Year: 2012
Objectives: Interaction between specific functional groups and apatite crystals may contribute to adhesion. The present study investigated effects of four adhesives with different compositions on protection of crystals beneath the hybrid layer against acid-attack using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Methods: Human dentin was bonded with four adhesives; two with a carboxylic-based functional co-polymer (PAA): three-step etch-and-rinse Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SMP, 3M ESPE) and one-step self-etch Adper Easy Bond (AEB, 3M ESPE), and two with a phosphate-based functional monomer (MDP): two-step etch-and-rinse Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB, Kuraray Medical) and two-step self-etch Clearfil SE Bond (CSE, Kuraray Medical). The specimens were the either left untreated (control) or subjected to acid-base challenge with demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) and 5% NaClO. All specimens were processed and observed by TEM. SAED was used to identify the presence or absence of apatite crystallites at the base or beneath hybrid layer before and after acid-base challenge. Results: An apatite-rich zone was observed beneath the partially demineralized hybrid layer of CSE. The zone was thinner in AEB, but a demineralization-susceptible area was found beneath it. The etch-and-rinse adhesives (SMP and CPB) demonstrated completely or predominantly demineralized hybrid layers, which were devoid of the acid-resistant apatite-rich zone. Significance: TEM/SAED evidence disclosed that the preserved dentin apatite crystals beneath the thin hybrid layer of the mild self-etch adhesives were protected against acid. Diffusion of reactive components beyond the hybrid layer, and their chemical bonding potential with the remaining crystals created the acid-base resistant zone. © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.
Moore T.A.,Cipher Consulting Ltd. |
Moore T.A.,University of Canterbury |
Bowe M.,Ephindo Energy Pte Ltd. |
Nas C.,Trisakti University
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2014
The Balikpapan Formation (Miocene age) in Sangatta, East Kalimantan is thick (>1500m) containing abundant coal seams that range in thickness from less than a meter to over 5m. Coal seams are distributed throughout the section and may represent 5 to 7% of the total formation thickness. Measured gas contents range from <1 to 13m3/t (as received basis). The variation is both stratigraphically and geographically controlled. In samples from three drill cores, trends of vitrinite reflectance, calorific value, and moisture content indicate that rank increases down hole. Measured gas content also increases down hole in each core locations. However the rate of change down hole for all of those parameters increases with proximity to the southwestern corner of a geological feature known locally as the Pinang Dome. The Sangatta area has a higher geothermal gradient (50°C/km) than most other parts of East Kalimantan (25-40°C/km). It is well documented that the southwest part of the Pinang Dome has elevated organic maturation levels. It is concluded that there is higher heat flow in this area and thus coal beds in proximity have been thermally altered. This is evident not just in the increased rank and measured gas contents but also in the higher CO2 and C2+ gas composition found adjacent to the southwest corner of the Pinang Dome. It is hypothesized that the gas origin in the higher rank area could be thermogenic while gas isotopes from the well furthest from the Pinang Dome, with the lowest rank coals, indicate biogenic origins. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Pusparini,Trisakti University |
Dharma R.,University of Indonesia |
Suyatna F.D.,University of Indonesia |
Mansyur M.,University of Indonesia |
Hidajat A.,Trisakti University
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013
A 12-month randomized double blind controlled trial was conducted among 182 Indonesian postmenopausal women aged 47 to 60 years to determine the effect of 100 mg/day soy isoflavone supplementation on vascular endothelial function such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as oxidative stress marker. The subjects were randomized to the intervention group receiving tablets consisting of 100 mg soy isoflavones and calcium carbonate 500 mg, and to the control group receiving 500 mg calcium carbonate. The concentrations of VCAM-1, NO and MDA were measured at baseline, and postsupplementation at 6 months and 12 months. After supplementation, the MDA concentrations were significantly lower in the soy isoflavone group compared with the control group (p=0.001). The concentrations of VCAM-1 and NO were not affected (p=0.992 and p=0.759, respectively). In all group the MDA concentration increased compared with baseline concentrations but the relative change of MDA concentrations was significantly lower in the soy isoflavone group compared with the control group. This study demonstrates that supplemental intake of soy isoflavones for 6 months and 12 months had an effect on oxidative stress by decreasing MDA concentration, but did not improve vascular endothelial function.
Julian E.S.,Trisakti University
Telkomnika | Year: 2012
Bipolar transistor performances can be characterized by figures of merit such as cut-off frequency, maximum frequency of oscillation and Emitter Coupled Logic gate delay. We studied the required figures of merit for digital application and the effects of lateral and vertical scaling to the figures of merit of SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor. With lateral scaling, the width of emitter finger is scaled down from 0.25 to 0.12 μm while with the vertical scaling, the base width is scaled down to reduce the base delay. We also observed the effects of Ge profile and Ge fraction to the devices performances. Bipole3 5.3.1G is used to help us in the study. We found that high frequency cut-off and maximum frequency of oscillation as well as low Emitter Coupled Logic gate delay are all important for digital applications. Scaling down the emitter finger width enhanced the maximum frequency of oscillation and reduced Emitter Coupled Logic gate delay significantly while scaling down the base width increased the cutoff frequency and current gain.
Pusparini,Trisakti University |
Yenny,Trisakti University |
Hidayat A.,Trisakti University
Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2015
Dietary isoflavones are considered to be cardioprotective because of their structural similarity to estrogen. Equol is a metabolite of daidzein that is more potent than daidzein itself. The effect of equol on endothelial function and oxidative stress remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 100 mg/day soy isoflavone supplementation on the following markers: vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and nitric oxide (NO) as markers of vascular endothelial function, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) as oxidative stress marker in equol-producing postmenopausal women. A stratified randomized double blind controlled trial was conducted among 190 postmenopausal Indonesian women aged 47 to 60 years. They were stratified into equol producers and equol nonproducers. The random allocation of intervention was carried out separately in each stratum. The intervention group received tablets consisting of 100 mg soy isoflavones and calcium carbonate 500 mg, and the control group received 500 mg calcium carbonate. The concentrations of VCAM-1, NO and MDA were measured at baseline and post-supplementation at 6 months. After 6 months of supplementation the MDA concentrations were significantly lower in the soy-isoflavone equol producers compared with equol nonproducers (p=0.021). Similar results were also found for VCAM-1 and NO concentrations, but these were statistically not significant (p = 0.413 and p= 0.724, respectively). This study demonstrates that isoflavone supplementation in postmenopausal women with equol-producer status had a more beneficial effect by decreasing the MDA concentration, but did not improve VCAM-1 and NO concentrations. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.
Amin J.J.A.,Trisakti University
51st World Congress of the International Federation of Landscape Architects, IFLA 2014 | Year: 2014
This writing investigates the above phenomena and aimed to introduce the Indonesian Javanese ways of thinking and 'reading' their natural and human-made landscapes through narratives and rituals of the shadow puppet (wayang) which conveys the meaningful and rich cultural memories (context, history, tradition and local wisdom) about earth, land and landscape. The Javanese culture is a dominant one in Indonesia. Wayang is a popular puppet shadow play, or better, a ritual in traditional Java; a living tradition that can be used as a tool to dig up the people's ideas and concept of nature and landscape. UNESCO in 2003 has decided wayang as 'Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity' in 2003. Almost every aspect of wayang is imbued with symbolic meaning. For instance, the noncharacter wayang, the kayon, represents center of the Javanese ordered cosmos, a reflection of the wishing tree - symbol of the cosmic order. This is a reflection of the old primordial binary concept with addition of the center element - to create a balanced world. Earth becomes land when people start to work on it or put they imprint on it for living, Land becomes landscape when it is crafted in a way that fulfils the functional and aesthetic needs of the people. It is argued that narrative of this kind can be used to trace creative efforts in space and place-making in traditional landscape and as a way to tell stories that link people to place and how their design can become important vehicle for making values of conservation visible. The understandings gained can address the multiple and complex issues in sustainable development to reveal a sense of identity on creation of space and place which now becomes a necessity in this globalization era.
Kadri T.,Trisakti University
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2011
There are nine major rivers flowing through Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. The total extent of the nine watersheds in Jakarta and its vicinity is about 106,000 ha. The average annual rainfall of three stations (1972-2008) throughout the watersheds is 2973 mm. The growing population and business activities have caused a tremendous conversion of land use. This problem is likely to cause an increase of surface run-off which in turn causing floods in rainy seasons. One of the rivers which floods frequently is Sunter River. It vicinity is about 73 184 092 m2 and water flow 83.8 m3/s at rainfall 100 mm. The land use in this area is very populated, so the rainfall with high intensity always causes floods. Many efforts have been made to solve the flooding but have not yet given optimum results. One effort to solve flooding is the rehabilitation of existing small lakes and building new lakes to accommodate the surface run-off. There are 5 lakes that already exist in that area (37.2 ha) and 11 alternative new small lakes to be built with 163.74 ha area. To evaluate potency of the lakes to reduce flood risk in the Sunter river area, a hydrology simulation is done. This research showed comparative study and how effective the small lakes are in reducing flood risk. © 2011 WIT Press.