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Majumdar S.,Institute of Genetic Medicine and Genomic Science | Maiti A.,Presidency College | Karmakar S.,Tripura Institute of Paramedical science | Sekhar Das A.,Tripura Institute of Paramedical science | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology

Earlier, we proposed that the ability of folic acid and vitamin B12 to preserve systemic and mitochondrial function after short-term exposure to arsenic may prevent further progression to more permanent injury and pathological changes leading to cell death. To elucidate its mechanism, the present study examined the antiapoptotic efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against short-term arsenic exposure-induced hepatic mitochondria oxidative stress and dysfunction. Sixteen to eighteen weeks old male albino rats weighing 140-150 × g were divided into five groups: Control (A), Arsenic-treated (B), Arsenic + folic acid (C), Arsenic +vitamin B12 (D), and Arsenic + folic acid + vitamin B12 (E). Data generated indicated that folic acid and vitamin B12 separately or in combination can give significant protection against alterations in oxidative stress and apoptotic marker parameters and downstream changes in mitochondria, namely pro-oxidative (NO, TBARS, OH-) and antioxidative defense (SOD, CAT, GSH) markers, iNOS protein expression, mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c oxidase and Ca2+-ATPase activity, Ca2+ content, caspase-3 activity. Additionally, results of hepatic cell DNA fragmentation, arsenic load of blood, hepatic tissue and urine, and histological observations, all strongly support that both these supplements have efficacy in preventing apoptotic changes and cellular damage. As the mechanisms of actions of both of these supplements are methylation related, a combined application was more effective. Results further reveal new molecular targets through which folic acid and vitamin B12 separately or in combination work to alleviate one critical component of arsenic-induced liver injury: mitochondria dysfunction. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Das A.S.,Tripura Institute of Paramedical science | Das A.S.,Presidency College | Banerjee M.,Presidency College | Banerjee M.,Hooghly Mohsin College | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Osteoporosis

The present study was undertaken to find out the ability of black tea extract (BTE) as a suitable alternative of adjunct for calcium supplementation in treating an ovariectomized rat model of early osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats weighing 140-150 g were divided into four groups consisting of six animals in each group: (A) sham-operated control; (B) bilaterally ovariectomized; (C) bilaterally ovariectomized + BTE; (D) bilaterally ovariectomized + 17β-estradiol. Results suggest that BTE could promote intestinal absorption of calcium significantly (P < 0.01 for duodenum and ileum; and P < 0.05 for jejunum). This was found associated with enhanced activities of two relevant intestinal mucosal enzymes alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.01 for duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and Ca2+ activated ATPase (P < 0.01 for duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). Such BTE-mediated promotion of calcium absorption was coupled with increase in serum estrogen titer (P < 0.01) and recovery of all urinary, bone, and serum osteoporotic marker parameters, including bone histological features. Serum parathyroid hormone level, however, was not altered in these animals (P > 0.05). A comparative study with 17β-estradiol, a well-known adjunct for calcium supplementation, indicated that efficacy of BTE in maintaining skeletal health is close to that of 17β-estradiol. This study suggests that simultaneous use of BTE is promising as a prospective candidate for adjunctive therapies for calcium supplementation in the early stage of menopausal bone changes. © 2013 Asankur Sekhar Das et al. Source

Karmakar S.,Tripura Institute of Paramedical science | Karmakar S.,Presidency College | Choudhury M.,Tripura Institute of Paramedical science | Choudhury M.,Presidency College | And 6 more authors.
Natural Product Research

This study examined the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds, which is rich in phenolic compounds namely eugenol and eugenol derivatives (precursors of flavones, isoflavones and flavonoids), on different primary and secondary osteoporotic marker changes in an ovariectomised (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated control (A), OVX (B) and OVX plus 50% hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds for 4 weeks (C). Results indicated that, compared to control, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP; 48.25%, p<0.01), serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; 63.48%, p<0.01), urinary calcium (14.70%, p<0.01), urinary phosphate (50.30%, p<0.01) and urinary creatinine (122.44%, p<0.01) were significantly altered in OVX rats. All these altered responses were significantly restored (AP: 27.53%, p<0.01; TRAP: 33.51%, p<0.01; calcium: 53.15%, p<0.01; phosphate: 27.49%, p<0.01; creatinine: 46.40%, p<0.01) by supplementation with hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds. Results of bone density, bone mineral content, bone tensile strength and histological analysis also showed similar trend of results, which supported initial observations of this study. It is proposed that hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds has bone-preserving efficacy against hypogonadal osteoporosis. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source

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