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Palos Heights, IL, United States

Trinity Christian College is a liberal arts college located in Palos Heights, Illinois, a southwest suburb of Chicago. The college was founded in 1959 by a group of Chicago businessmen who wanted to establish a college providing students with a Christian higher education in a Reformed tradition. Consistently ranked as a top tier college by U.S. News & World Report, this accredited, four-year liberal arts college offers degrees in more than 70 programs of study. The college has also undergone extensive building projects over the past decade to become a modern, technologically rich institution. Today, Trinity's total student enrollment is over 1,300 students. Wikipedia.

Werling B.P.,Michigan State University | Werling B.P.,U.S. Department of Energy | Dickson T.L.,Michigan State University | Dickson T.L.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | And 30 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Agriculture is being challenged to provide food, and increasingly fuel, for an expanding global population. Producing bioenergy crops on marginal lands-farmland suboptimal for food crops- could help meet energy goals while minimizing competition with food production. However, the ecological costs and benefits of growing bioenergy feedstocks-primarily annual grain crops-on marginal lands have been questioned. Here we show that perennial bioenergy crops provide an alternative to annual grains that increases biodiversity of multiple taxa and sustain a variety of ecosystem functions, promoting the creation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes. We found that switchgrass and prairie plantings harbored significantly greater plant, methanotrophic bacteria, arthropod, and bird diversity than maize. Although biomass production was greater in maize, all other ecosystem services, including methane consumption, pest suppression, pollination, and conservation of grassland birds, were higher in perennial grasslands. Moreover, we found that the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem services is dependent not only on the choice of bioenergy crop but also on its location relative to other habitats, with local landscape context as important as crop choice in determining provision of some services. Our study suggests that bioenergy policy that supports coordinated land use can diversify agricultural landscapes and sustain multiple critical ecosystem services.

Hassert D.L.,Trinity Christian College
Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Reductionism is usually taken for granted in many areas of science, neuroscience and psychology being no exceptions. It is often assumed as scientific orthodoxy that human behavior can be reduced to "what the brain does" without recourse to a consideration of cognition. Although many philosophers and ethicists may seek to reduce or eliminate the concept of mind, other philosophers and ethicists have continually pointed out the logical inconsistencies of such an approach. Via a discussion of efficient and final causes in Aristotelian philosophy, I seek to argue that the understanding of human beings as rational and social creatures has guided and should continue to guide our approach to the care and treatment of the mentally ill. Observations concerning rational behavior and cognition, by necessity, have provided the benchmarks by which clinicians evaluate the effectiveness of somatic/pharmacological or psychological/ behavioral interventions: Eliminative reductionism is inappropriate in this area. In approaching issues pertaining to the relationship between human cognitive functioning and neural functioning, the distinction between capacity and vehicle will be used. However, the fact that mental and behavioral functioning can alter neuronal functioning (and vice versa) necessitates that those working with the mentally ill need to know both the efficient causes-the vehicles of certain capacities-and the role of the capacities themselves and how they relate to possible final causes in giving explanations for behavior. These issues become more significant when considering the ethics of treatment choice for those with mental disorders. © 2011 Springer Publishing Company.

Song W.-H.,Fudan University | Liu M.-M.,Fudan University | Zhong D.-W.,Fudan University | Zhu Y.-L.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

A series of diketo tetrazoles and diketo triazoles were designed and synthesized as bioisosteres of α,γ-diketo acid, the active site inhibitor of HCV (Hepatitis C virus) polymerase NS5B. Among the synthesized compounds, 4-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)phenyl diketo triazole (30) exhibited anti-HCV activity with an EC50 value of 3.9 μM and an SI value more than 128. The reduction of viral protein and mRNA levels were also validated, supporting the anti-HCV activity of compound 30. These results provide convincing evidence that the diketo tetrazoles and diketo triazoles can be developed as bioisosteres of α,γ-diketo acid to exhibit potent inhibitory activity against HCV. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

We have previously shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) improve function upon integration in ischemic myocardium. We examined whether specific cytokines and growth factors produced by MSCs are able to affect angiogenesis, cellular migration and apoptosis. Conditioned media (CM) was prepared by culturing MSC for 48 hours. CM displayed significantly elevated levels of VEGF, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β and monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) compared to control media. MSC contained RNA for these factors as detected by RT-PCR. CM was able to induce angiogenesis in canine vascular endothelial cells. MCP-1 and MIP-1α increased cell migration of MSC while VEGF reduced it. H9c2 cells treated with CM under hypoxic conditions for 24 hours displayed a 16% reduction in caspase-3 activity compared to controls. PI 3-kinase γ inhibitor had no effect on controls but reversed the effect of CM on caspase-3 activity. MCP-1 alone mimicked the protective effect of CM while the PI 3-Kγ inhibitor did not reverse the effect of MCP-1. CM reduced phospho-BAD (Ser112) and phospho-Akt (Ser473) while increasing phospho-Akt (Thr308). MCP-1 reduced the level of phospho-Akt (Ser473) while having no effect on the other two; the PI 3-Kγ inhibitor did not alter the MCP-1 effect. ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was reduced in CM treated H9c2 cells, and inhibition of ERK 1/2 reduced the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473), Akt (Thr308) and Bad (Ser112). In conclusion, MSC synthesize and secrete multiple paracrine factors that are able to affect MSC migration, promote angiogenesis and reduce apoptosis. While both MCP-1 and PI3-kinase are involved in the protective effect, they are independent of each other. It is likely that multiple pro-survival factors in addition to MCP-1 are secreted by MSC which act on divergent intracellular signaling pathways.

Boomsma R.A.,Trinity Christian College | Geenen D.L.,Grand Valley State University
Stem Cells International | Year: 2014

This study examined the interaction of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with cardiac HL-1 cells during coculture by fluorescent dye labeling and then flow cytometry. MSC were layered onto confluent HL-1 cell cultures in a 1: 4 ratio. MSC gained gap junction permeant calcein from HL-1 cells after 4 hours which was partially reduced by oleamide. After 20 hours, 99% MSC gained calcein, unaffected by oleamide. Double-labeling HL-1 cells with calcein and the membrane dye DiO resulted in transfer of both calcein and DiO to MSC. When HL-1 cells were labeled with calcein and MSC with DiO, MSC gained calcein while HL-1 cells gained DiO. Very little fusion was observed since more than 90% Sca-1 positive MSC gained DiO from HL-1 cells while less than 9% gained gap junction impermeant CMFDA after 20 hours with no Sca-1 transfer to HL-1 cells. Time dependent transfer of membrane DiD was observed from HL-1 cells to MSC (100%) and vice versa (50%) after 20 hours with more limited transfer of CMFDA. These results demonstrate that MSC and HL-1 cells exchange membrane components which may account for some of the beneficial effect of MSC in the heart after myocardial infarction. © 2014 Robert A. Boomsma and David L. Geenen.

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