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Elamin M.,Trinity College Dublin | Bede P.,Trinity College Dublin | Byrne S.,Trinity College Dublin | Jordan N.,Beaumont Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine whether cognitive status in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a useful predictor of attrition and motor and cognitive decline. Methods: Cognitive testing was undertaken in a large population-based cohort of incident ALS patients using a longitudinal, case-control study design. Normative data for neuropsychological tests were generated using age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls who also underwent repeated assessments. Data were analyzed to generate models for progression/spread. Results: One hundred eighty-six patients with ALS who had no evidence of C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion were enrolled. A second and third assessment were undertaken in 98 and 46 of the patients with ALS, respectively. Executive impairment at the initial visit was associated with significantly higher rates of attrition due to disability or death and faster rates of motor functional decline, particularly decline in bulbar function. Decline in cognitive function was faster in patients who were cognitively impaired at baseline. Normal cognition at baseline was associated with tendency to remain cognitively intact, and with slower motor and cognitive progression. Conclusions: Non-C9orf72-associated ALS is characterized by nonoverlapping cognitive subgroups with different disease trajectories. These findings have important implications for models of ALS pathogenesis, and for future clinical trial design. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology. Source


Kenna K.P.,Trinity College Dublin | Mclaughlin R.L.,Trinity College Dublin | Hardiman O.,Trinity Biomedical science Institute | Bradley D.G.,Trinity College Dublin
Human Mutation | Year: 2013

The potential pathogenicity of genetic variants identified in disease-based resequencing studies is often overlooked where variants have previously been reported in dbSNP, the 1000 genomes project, or the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). In this work, we estimate that collectively, these databases capture ∼52% of mutations (dbSNP 50.4%; 1000 genomes 4.8%; and ESP 10.2%) reported as disease causing within phenotype-based locus-specific databases (LSDBs). To investigate whether these mutations may simply represent benign population variants, we evaluated whether the carrier frequencies associated with mutations implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were higher than what could be accounted for by high-penetrance disease models. In doing so, we have questioned the veracity of 51 mutations, but also demonstrated that each of the three databases included credible disease variants. Our results demonstrate the benefits of using databases such as dbSNP, the 1000 genomes project, and the ESP to evaluate the pathogenicity of putative disease variants, and suggest that many disease mutations reported across LSDBs may not actually be pathogenic. However, they also demonstrate that even in the context of rare Mendelian disorders, the potential pathogenicity of variants reported by these databases should not be overlooked without proper evaluation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Maher B.M.,Trinity College Dublin | Mulcahy M.E.,Trinity College Dublin | Murphy A.G.,Trinity College Dublin | Wilk M.,Trinity College Dublin | And 4 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2013

Recent work has identified T cells and the cytokines they produce as important correlates of immune protection during Staphylococcus aureus infections through the ability of these T cells to regulate local neutrophil responses. However, the specific T-cell subsets that are involved in coordinating protection at distinct sites of infection remains to be established. In this study, we identify for the first time an important role for γδT cells in controlling S. aureus surgical site infection (SSI). γδT cells are recruited to the wound site following S. aureus challenge, where they represent the primary source of interleukin 17 (IL-17), with a small contribution from other non-γδT cells. The IL-17 response is entirely dependent upon IL-1 receptor signaling. Using IL-17 receptor- deficient mice, we demonstrate that IL-17 is required to control bacterial clearance during S. aureus SSI. However, we demonstrate a strain-dependent requirement for γδT cells in this process due to the differential abilities of individual strains to activate IL-1ß production. IL-1ß processing relies upon activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome complex, and we demonstrate that Nlrp3-deficient and IL-1 receptor-deficient mice have an impaired ability to control S. aureus SSI due to reduced production of IL-17 by γδT cells at the site of infection. Given that IL-17 has been identified as an important correlate of immune protection during S. aureus infection, it is vital that the unique cellular sources of this cytokine and mechanisms inducing its activation are identified at distinct sites of infection. Our study demonstrates that while IL-17 may be critically important for mediating immune protection during S. aureus SSI, the relative contribution of γδT cells to these protective effects may be strain dependent. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source


Senge M.O.,Trinity Biomedical science Institute
Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section B Journal of Chemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Galvinols are interesting, sterically hindered compounds that serve as precursors for the generation of stable galvinoxyl radicals. In order to elucidate their basic structural chemistry and the influence of steric effects on their conformation a comparative analysis of several galvinol derivatives was undertaken. The aryl and quinoid subunits could clearly be identified, and substituents at the connecting methine bridge were found to influence the conformation of the molecules. As a result of the sterically hindered residues the molecules pack mainly through weak van der Waals interactions without formation of hydrogen bonds. The observation of different crystal forms and packing for galvinols and their conformational flexibility will impact current solid-state applications and provides unambiguous structural data for theoretical calculations. © 2012 Verlag der Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, Tubingen. Source


Quinn S.R.,Trinity Biomedical science Institute | O'Neill L.A.,Trinity Biomedical science Institute
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2014

Recent studies have shown an important interplay between Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and microRNAs. IL-10 can be directly post-transcriptionally regulated by several microRNA, including miR-106a, miR-4661, miR-98, miR-27, let7 and miR-1423p/5p. miRNA targeting of IL-10 has been suggested to play a role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as SLE, reperfusion injury and asthma. Another miRNA, miR-21, has been shown to indirectly regulate IL-10 via downregulation of the IL-10 inhibitor PDCD4. The targeting of IL-10 in this way has been linked to host defence modulation by Mycobacterium leprae. Viral miRNAs, such as miR-K12-3 from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), can also decrease IL-10 to promote tumour development. Finally this interplay can operate in a feedback loop, with IL-10 capable of regulating microRNAs, upregulating those that can contribute to exerting the anti-inflammatory response, such as miR-187, and downregulating those that are highly pro-inflammatory, such as miR-155. Understanding the two-way regulation between miRNA and IL-10 is giving rise to new insights into this important cytokine. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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