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Angola, IN, United States

Trine University, formerly known as Tri-State University, is a private post-secondary institution located in Angola, Indiana. The school was founded in 1884, and offers degrees in the arts and science, business, education and engineering. Trine University is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. It operates several satellite campuses across northern and central Indiana. Wikipedia.

Polizzi M.A.,Eli Lilly and Company | Franchville J.,Trine University | Hilden J.L.,Eli Lilly and Company
Powder Technology

The propensity of powder to bridge in hoppers and bins is important for a wide variety of pharmaceutical processes, yet it remains difficult to predict large-scale performance from small-scale powder measurements. Despite the availability of various powder flow testing techniques, the prediction of powder bridging has remained elusive. To address this issue, powder flow performance was characterized for several pharmaceutical powders out of small-scale conical hoppers under various conditions. Specifically, the impacts of powder properties, hopper design, hopper fill level and vibration prior to discharge were characterized. The hopper flow regimes were categorized as mass flow, funnel flow, rat-holing or bridging. A Projection to Latent Spaces (PLS, a.k.a. partial least squares regression) model was developed to predict flow behavior from easily measured powder properties such as the Hausner ratio and measured hopper dimensions. The model correctly predicted flow initiation for new materials for ~. 90% of tests. The variables of Hausner ratio, vibration prior to discharge, and hopper orifice diameter were seen to be most predictive of flow. Surprisingly, powder shear test data such as flow function and unconfined yield strength along with other flow properties were not predictive of hopper performance for the conditions studied. A useful metric, tan(φ)/D, was developed utilizing the hopper semi-apex angle (φ) and orifice diameter (D), and was considered as a first-pass scale-up model. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Karra P.,Trine University | Kong S.-C.,Iowa State University
SAE Technical Papers

A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was implemented with engine testing in order to accelerate the engine development process. The PSO algorithm is a stochastic, population-based evolutionary optimization algorithm. In this study, PSO was used to reduce exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency. A merit function was defined to help reduce multiple emissions simultaneously. Engine operations using both single-injection and double-injection strategies were optimized. The present PSO algorithm was found to be very effective in finding the favorable operating conditions for low emissions. The optimization usually took 40-70 experimental runs to find the most favorable operating conditions under the constraints specified in the present testing. High EGR levels, small pilot amount, and late main injection were suggested by the PSO. Multiple emissions were reduced simultaneously without a compromise in the brake specific fuel consumption. In a favorable case that produced low emissions in this study, the raw NOx and PM emissions were reduced to 0.41 and 0.0092 g/kW-h, respectively, with an operating condition of 34% EGR, 5 ATDC main SOI, -24 ATDC pilot SOI, and 5% pilot fuel. Copyright © 2010 SAE International. Source

Park K.,Trine University
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

The position of the torso and the magnitude of exertion are thought to influence the distribution pattern of intervertebral movements within the lumbar spine. Abnormal intervertebral movements have been correlated with the risk of spine injuries. Since the capability to measure movement distribution within the lumbar spine noninvasively is limited, a convenient method to diagnose joint motion function was proposed. The goal of this research was to test the efficacy of the instantaneous axis of rotation for assessment of the distribution of movement within the lumbar spine. The proposed method was evaluated in the biomechanical model. The results showed that the location of instantaneous axis of rotation lowered with increased trunk exertion force, and slightly moved higher with increased trunk angle. Recognizing that abnormal location of the instantaneous axis of rotation correlated with spinal pain, these results suggest potential the location of the instantaneous axis of rotation relates to the risk of low back pain on distributed spinal kinematics. © 2014, The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Gerschutz M.J.,Trine University
Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics

Introduction: The functional purpose of lower-limb prosthetic suspension systems is to adhere the prosthesis to the residual limb of the individual with amputation. Elevated vacuum suspension, a recent advancement in suspension systems, creates subatmospheric pressure between the prosthetic socket and the interface material. This form of suspension has clinically demonstrated superior prosthetic linkage. The purpose of this study was to dynamically evaluate distal displacement for vacuum and suction suspension. Vacuumwas assessed at three different levels (8 in Hg, 14 in Hg, and 20 in Hg). In addition, the relationship between distal displacement and vacuum pressure fluctuations was compared. Materials and Methods: For five subjects with transfemoral amputation, an inductive sensor was used to measure the distal displacement during ambulation. Simultaneous vacuum pressure responses were collected for comparison. Results: The average distal displacement was 2.65 (1.21)mmfor suction suspension, 0.80 (0.40)mmfor vacuumat 8 in Hg, 0.21 (0.15) mm for vacuum at 14 in Hg, and 0.05 (0.04) mm for vacuum at 20 in Hg. Direct correlations were also determined between fluctuations in vacuum pressure and the amount of distal displacement providing insight regarding the dynamics within a vacuum suspended prosthetic socket. Conclusions: Vacuum suspension significantly reduced the amount of vertical displacement compared with suction displacement, and a linear correlation was determined between pressure fluctuations and distal displacement with vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists. Source

In this article it is argued, that the universe cannot be modeled as a space-time manifold. A theorem of geometry provides that null geodesics on a space-time manifold which begin at the same point with the same initial tangent vector are unique. But in reality, light originating from a single point with a given initial direction does not travel along a unique null geodesic path when a massive object attracts it, in particular when the massive object is in an indefinite location. Therefore, the universe cannot be described as a space-time manifold. It is then argued that the universe is a superposition of space-time manifolds, where the manifolds form a Hilbert space over the complex numbers. ©2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Institute for Advanced Studies in the Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences. Source

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