Trinationales Institute For Pflanzenforschung

Strasbourg, France

Trinationales Institute For Pflanzenforschung

Strasbourg, France
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Harashima H.,University of Strasbourg | Harashima H.,Trinationales Institute For Pflanzenforschung | Harashima H.,RIKEN | Dissmeyer N.,University of Strasbourg | And 10 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Modulation of protein activity by phosphorylation through kinases and subsequent de-phosphorylation by phosphatases is one of the most prominent cellular control mechanisms. Thus, identification of kinase substrates is pivotal for the understanding of many - if not all - molecular biological processes. Equally, the possibility to deliberately tune kinase activity is of great value to analyze the biological process controlled by a particular kinase. Results: Here we have applied a chemical genetic approach and generated an analog-sensitive version of CDKA;1, the central cell-cycle regulator in Arabidopsis and homolog of the yeast Cdc2/CDC28 kinases. This variant could largely rescue a cdka;1 mutant and is biochemically active, albeit less than the wild type. Applying bulky kinase inhibitors allowed the reduction of kinase activity in an organismic context in vivo and the modulation of plant growth. To isolate CDK substrates, we have adopted a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis strategy, and searched for proteins that showed mobility changes in fluorescently labeled extracts from plants expressing the analog-sensitive version of CDKA;1 with and without adding a bulky ATP variant. A pilot set of five proteins involved in a range of different processes could be confirmed in independent kinase assays to be phosphorylated by CDKA;1 approving the applicability of the here-developed method to identify substrates. Conclusion: The here presented generation of an analog-sensitive CDKA;1 version is functional and represent a novel tool to modulate kinase activity in vivo and identify kinase substrates. Our here performed pilot screen led to the identification of CDK targets that link cell proliferation control to sugar metabolism, proline proteolysis, and glucosinolate production providing a hint how cell proliferation and growth are integrated with plant development and physiology. © 2016 The Author(s).

Zhao X.,University of Strasbourg | Harashima H.,University of Strasbourg | Harashima H.,Trinationales Institute For Pflanzenforschung | Dissmeyer N.,University of Strasbourg | And 15 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2012

The decision to replicate its DNA is of crucial importance for every cell and, in many organisms, is decisive for the progression through the entire cell cycle. A comparison of animals versus yeast has shown that, although most of the involved cell-cycle regulators are divergent in both clades, they fulfill a similar role and the overall network topology of G1/S regulation is highly conserved. Using germline development as a model system, we identified a regulatory cascade controlling entry into S phase in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which, as a member of the Plantae supergroup, is phylogenetically only distantly related to Opisthokonts such as yeast and animals. This module comprises the Arabidopsis homologs of the animal transcription factor E2F, the plant homolog of the animal transcriptional repressor Retinoblastoma (Rb)-related 1 (RBR1), the plant-specific F-box protein F-BOX-LIKE 17 (FBL17), the plant specific cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors KRPs, as well as CDKA;1, the plant homolog of the yeast and animal Cdc2+/Cdk1 kinases. Our data show that the principle of a double negative wiring of Rb proteins is highly conserved, likely representing a universal mechanism in eukaryotic cell-cycle control. However, this negative feedback of Rb proteins is differently implemented in plants as it is brought about through a quadruple negative regulation centered around the F-box protein FBL17 that mediates the degradation of CDK inhibitors but is itself directly repressed by Rb. Biomathematical simulations and subsequent experimental confirmation of computational predictions revealed that this regulatory circuit can give rise to hysteresis highlighting the here identified dosage sensitivity of CDK inhibitors in this network. © 2012 Zhao et al.

Harashima H.,University of Strasbourg | Harashima H.,Trinationales Institute For Pflanzenforschung | Dissmeyer N.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry | Schnittger A.,University of Strasbourg | Schnittger A.,Trinationales Institute For Pflanzenforschung
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Almost two billion years of evolution have generated a vast and amazing variety of eukaryotic life with approximately 8.7 million extant species. Growth and reproduction of all of these organisms depend on faithful duplication and distribution of their chromosomes to the newly forming daughter cells in a process called the cell cycle. However, most of what is known today about cell cycle control comes from a few model species that belong to the unikonts; that is, to only one of five 'supergroups' that comprise the eukaryotic kingdom. Recently, analyzing species from distantly related clades is providing insights into general principles of cell cycle regulation and shedding light on its evolution. Here, referring to animal and fungal as opposed to non-unikont systems, especially flowering plants from the archaeplastid supergroup, we compare the conservation of central cell cycle regulator functions, the structure of network topologies, and the evolutionary dynamics of substrates of core cell cycle kinases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Weimer A.K.,University of Strasbourg | Nowack M.K.,Vlaams Institute for Biotechnology | Nowack M.K.,Ghent University | Bouyer D.,University of Strasbourg | And 11 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

Formative, also called asymmetric, cell divisions produce daughter cells with different identities. Like other divisions, formative divisions rely first of all on the cell cycle machinery with centrally acting cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their cyclin partners to control progression through the cell cycle. However, it is still largely obscure how developmental cues are translated at the cellular level to promote asymmetric divisions. Here, we show that formative divisions in the shoot and root of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana are controlled by a common mechanism that relies on the activity level of the Cdk1 homolog CDKA;1, with medium levels being sufficient for symmetric divisions but high levels being required for formative divisions. We reveal that the function of CDKA;1 in asymmetric cell divisions operates through a transcriptional regulation system that is mediated by the Arabidopsis Retinoblastoma homolog RBR1. RBR1 regulates not only cell cycle genes, but also, independent of the cell cycle transcription factor E2F, genes required for formative divisions and cell fate acquisition, thus directly linking cell proliferation with differentiation. This mechanism allows the implementation of spatial information, in the form of high kinase activity, with intracellular gating of developmental decisions. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

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