Kuntsche E.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Rossow I.,Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research |
Engels R.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Engels R.,Trimbos Institute
Addiction | Year: 2016
Aim: To address and discuss the weaknesses of age at first drink (AFD) as a concept in alcohol research and prevention. Methods: Narrative literature review. Results: Varying from one sip to the consumption of several full drinks, and sometimes including the specification of particular conditions (e.g. without parental consent), no exact definition and operationalization of AFD was found. Evidence reveals poor test-retest reliability when the same individuals report their AFD two or more times. Theoretical arguments and empirical evidence fail to explain why having one sip or one drink earlier than peers should cause heavier drinking and related problems later in life. Alternative explanations such as self-selection, third variable effects and systematic report bias are not considered in most studies. These shortcomings also make AFD unsuitable as an indicator or marker of underlying problems such as conduct problems and academic failure. Together with unjustified causal inferences, this has led to an over-emphasis on the relevance of postponing AFD as a way to prevent problems later in life. Conclusion: We argue in favour of shifting the focus of alcohol research and prevention away from AFD towards a better understanding of the progression from infrequent, low-quantity drinking to more detrimental drinking patterns and the prevention of associated acute and short-term harm. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Wigman J.T.W.,University Utrecht |
Vollebergh W.A.M.,University Utrecht |
Raaijmakers Q.A.W.,University Utrecht |
Iedema J.,Netherlands Institute for Sea Research |
And 5 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2011
The extended psychosis phenotype, or the expression of nonclinical positive psychotic experiences, is already prevalent in adolescence and has a dose-response risk relationship with later psychotic disorder. In 2 large adolescent general population samples (n = 5422 and n = 2230), prevalence and structure of the extended psychosis phenotype was investigated. Positive psychotic experiences, broadly defined, were reported by the majority of adolescents. Exploratory analysis with Structural Equation Modelling (Exploratory Factor Analysis followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis [CFA]) in sample 1 suggested that psychotic experiences were best represented by 5 underlying dimensions; CFA in sample 2 provided a replication of this model. Dimensions were labeled Hallucinations, Delusions, Paranoia, Grandiosity, and Paranormal beliefs. Prevalences differed strongly, Hallucinations having the lowest and Paranoia having the highest rates. Girls reported more experiences on all dimensions, except Grandiosity, and from age 12 to 16 years rates increased. Hallucinations, Delusions, and Paranoia, but not Grandiosity and Paranormal beliefs, were associated with distress and general measures of psychopathology. Thus, only some of the dimensions of the extended psychosis phenotype in young people may represent a continuum with more severe psychopathology and predict later psychiatric disorder. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved.
Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam |
Smit F.,VU University Amsterdam |
Smit F.,Trimbos Institute |
Bohlmeijer E.,University of Twente |
And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2010
Background: It is not clear whether the effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy and other psychotherapies have been overestimated because of publication bias. Aims: To examine indicators of publication bias in randomised controlled trials of psychotherapy for adult depression. Method: We examined effect sizes of 117 trials with 175 comparisons between psychotherapy and control conditions. As indicators of publication bias we examined funnel plots, calculated adjusted effect sizes after publication had been taken into account using Duval & Tweedie's procedure, and tested the symmetry of the funnel plots using the Begg & Mazumdar rank correlation test and Egger's test. Results: The mean effect size was 0.67, which was reduced after adjustment for publication bias to 0.42 (51 imputed studies). Both Begg & Mazumbar's test and Egger's test were highly significant (P<0.001). Conclusions: The effects of psychotherapy for adult depression seem to be overestimated considerably because of publication bias.
Van Vugt M.D.,Trimbos Institute |
Kroon H.,Trimbos Institute |
Delespaul P.A.E.G.,Maastricht University |
Mulder C.L.,Rotterdam University
Psychiatric Services | Year: 2012
Objective: This study examined whether employing mental health consumers as consumer-providers in assertive community treatment teams can enhance outcomes for clients with severe mental illness. Methods: In a prospective longitudinal study, presence of consumer-providers and outcomes of 530 clients with severe mental illness in 20 outpatient teams were assessed at baseline and at one-year and two-year follow-ups. Measures included the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS), the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Assessment Schedule (CANSAS), the Working Alliance Scale, the number of hospital days, and the number of days of homelessness. Multilevel regression was used with the independent variables consumer-provider presence, time of measurement, and their interaction. Results: A positive association was found between consumer-provider presence and improvements in functioning on the HoNOS (p=.020), met needs in relation to personal recovery (p=.044), unmet needs in relation to personal recovery (p=.008), and number of homeless days (p<.001). A negative association was found for consumer-provider presence and the number of hospital days (p=.019). Conclusions: Consumer-providers are important participants in outpatient teams serving clients with severe mental illnesses, although integrating these providers as part of a team is a slow process.
Franx G.,Trimbos institute |
Oud M.,Trimbos institute |
de Lange J.,Trimbos institute |
Wensing M.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Grol R.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Implementation Science | Year: 2012
Background: Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC) was initiated in the Netherlands.Methods: Alongside the QIC, an intervention study using a controlled before-and-after design was performed. Part of the study was a process evaluation, utilizing semi-structured group interviews, to provide insight into the perceptions of the participating clinicians on the implementation of stepped care for depression into their daily routines. Participants were primary care clinicians, specialist clinicians, and other healthcare staff from eight regions in the Netherlands. Analysis was supported by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT).Results: The introduction of a stepped-care model for depression to primary care teams within the context of a depression QIC was generally well received by participating clinicians. All three elements of the proposed stepped-care model (patient differentiation, stepped-care treatment, and outcome monitoring), were translated and introduced locally. Clinicians reported changes in terms of learning how to differentiate between patient groups and different levels of care, changing antidepressant prescribing routines as a consequence of having a broader treatment package to offer to their patients, and better working relationships with patients and colleagues. A complex range of factors influenced the implementation process. Facilitating factors were the stepped-care model itself, the structured team meetings (part of the QIC method), and the positive reaction from patients to stepped care. The differing views of depression and depression care within multidisciplinary health teams, lack of resources, and poor information systems hindered the rapid introduction of the stepped-care model. The NPT constructs 'coherence' and 'cognitive participation' appeared to be crucial drivers in the initial stage of the process.Conclusions: Stepped care for depression is received positively in primary care. While it is difficult for the implementation of a full stepped-care approach to occur within a short time frame, clinicians can make progress towards achieving a stepped-care approach, particularly within the context of a QIC. Creating a shared understanding within multidisciplinary teams of what constitutes depression, reaching a consensus about the content of depression care, and the division of tasks are important when addressing the implementation process. © 2012 Franx et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Lamers S.M.A.,University of Twente |
Bolier L.,Trimbos Institute |
Westerhof G.J.,University of Twente |
Smit F.,Trimbos Institute |
Bohlmeijer E.T.,University of Twente
Journal of Behavioral Medicine | Year: 2012
This meta-analysis synthesized studies on emotional well-being as predictor of the prognosis of physical illness, while in addition evaluating the impact of putative moderators, namely constructs of well-being, health-related outcome, year of publication, follow-up time and methodological quality of the included studies. The search in reference lists and electronic databases (Medline and PsycInfo) identified 17 eligible studies examining the impact of general well-being, positive affect and life satisfaction on recovery and survival in physically ill patients. Meta-analytically combining these studies revealed a Likelihood Ratio of 1.14, indicating a small but significant effect. Higher levels of emotional well-being are beneficial for recovery and survival in physically ill patients. The findings show that emotional well-being predicts long-term prognosis of physical illness. This suggests that enhancement of emotional well-being may improve the prognosis of physical illness, which should be investigated by future research. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.
Korte J.,University of Twente |
Bohlmeijer E.T.,University of Twente |
Cappeliez P.,University of Ottawa |
Smit F.,Trimbos Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2012
Background Although there is substantial evidence for the efficacy of life review therapy as an early treatment of depression in later life, its effectiveness in natural settings has not been studied. The present study evaluates an intervention based on life review and narrative therapy in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT).Method Life review therapy was compared with care as usual. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms; secondary outcomes were anxiety symptoms, positive mental health, quality of life, and current major depressive episode (MDE). To identify groups for whom the intervention was particularly effective, moderator analyses were carried out (on sociodemographic variables, personality traits, reminiscence functions, clinically relevant depressive and anxiety symptoms, and past MDEs).Results Compared with care as usual (n=102), life review therapy (n=100) was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, at post-treatment (d=0.60, B=-5.3, p<0.001), at 3-month follow-up (d=0.50, B=-5.0, p<0.001) and for the intervention also at 9-month follow-up (t=5.7, p<0.001). The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher [odds ratio (OR) 3.77, p<0.001 at post-treatment; OR 3.76, p<0.001 at the 3-month follow-up]. Small significant effects were found for symptoms of anxiety and positive mental health. Moderator analyses showed only two significant moderators, the personality trait of extraversion and the reminiscence function of boredom reduction.Conclusions This study shows the effectiveness of life review therapy as an early intervention for depression in an ecologically valid context, supporting its applicability to a broad target group. The intervention is also effective in reducing anxiety symptoms and strengthening positive mental health. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
Van Der Zanden R.,Trimbos Institute |
Kramer J.,Trimbos Institute |
Gerrits R.,Dimence Institute of Mental Health |
Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2012
Background: Depression is a serious mental health problem, whose first onset is usually in adolescence. Online treatment may offer a solution for the current undertreatment of depression in youth. For adults with depressive symptoms, the effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has been demonstrated. This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials to investigate the effectiveness online depression treatment for young people with depressive complaints and the first to focus on an online group course. Objective: To evaluate and discuss the effectiveness of a guided Web-based group course called Grip op Je Dip (Master Your Mood [MYM]), designed for young people aged 16 to 25 years with depressive symptoms, in comparison with a wait-listed control group. Methods: We randomly assigned 244 young people with depressive symptoms to the online MYM course or to a waiting-list control condition. The primary outcome measure was treatment outcome after 3 months on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes were anxiety (measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and mastery (Mastery Scale). We studied the maintenance of effects in the MYM group 6 months after baseline. Missing data were imputed. Results: The MYM group (n = 121) showed significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms at 3 months than the control group (n = 123) (t 187 = 6.62, P <.001), with a large between-group effect size of d = 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.23). The MYM group also showed greater improvement in anxiety (t 187 = 3.80, P <.001, d = 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-0.75) and mastery (t 187 = 3.36, P =.001, d = 0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.70). At 12 weeks, 56% (68/121) of the participants in the MYM group and 20% (24/123) in the control group showed reliable and clinically significant change. This between-group difference was significant (χ 2 1 = 35.0, P <.001) and yielded a number needed to treat of 2.7. Improvements in the MYM group were maintained at 6 months. A limitation is the infeasibility of comparing the 6-month outcomes of the MYM and control groups, as the controls had access to MYM after 3 months. Conclusions: The online group course MYM was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and anxiety and in increasing mastery in young people. These effects persisted in the MYM group at 6 months. Trial Registration: Nederlands Trial Register: NTR1694; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC= 1694 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/683SBoeGV) © Rianne van der Zanden, Jeannet Kramer, Rob Gerrits, Pim Cuijpers.
Diviani N.,University of Amsterdam |
Van Den Putte B.,University of Amsterdam |
Van Den Putte B.,Trimbos Institute |
Giani S.,University of Amsterdam |
Van Weert J.C.M.,University of Amsterdam
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2015
Background: Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in consumer online health information seeking. The quality of online health information, however, remains questionable. The issue of information evaluation has become a hot topic, leading to the development of guidelines and checklists to design high-quality online health information. However, little attention has been devoted to how consumers, in particular people with low health literacy, evaluate online health information. Objective: The main aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the association between low health literacy and (1) people's ability to evaluate online health information, (2) perceived quality of online health information, (3) trust in online health information, and (4) use of evaluation criteria for online health information. Methods: Five academic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete) were systematically searched. We included peer-reviewed publications investigating differences in the evaluation of online information between people with different health literacy levels. Results: After abstract and full-text screening, 38 articles were included in the review. Only four studies investigated the specific role of low health literacy in the evaluation of online health information. The other studies examined the association between educational level or other skills-based proxies for health literacy, such as general literacy, and outcomes. Results indicate that low health literacy (and related skills) are negatively related to the ability to evaluate online health information and trust in online health information. Evidence on the association with perceived quality of online health information and use of evaluation criteria is inconclusive. Conclusions: The findings indicate that low health literacy (and related skills) play a role in the evaluation of online health information. This topic is therefore worth more scholarly attention. Based on the results of this review, future research in this field should (1) specifically focus on health literacy, (2) devote more attention to the identification of the different criteria people use to evaluate online health information, (3) develop shared definitions and measures for the most commonly used outcomes in the field of evaluation of online health information, and (4) assess the relationship between the different evaluative dimensions and the role played by health literacy in shaping their interplay.
Van der Pol P.,Trimbos Institute |
Liebregts N.,University of Amsterdam |
de Graaf R.,Trimbos Institute |
Korf D.J.,University of Amsterdam |
And 2 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2013
Background: Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent cannabis users. Methods: A prospective cohort of frequent cannabis users (aged 18-30, n= 600) with baseline and two follow-up assessments (18 and 36 months) was used. Only participants without lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV cannabis dependence at baseline (n= 269) were selected. Incidence of DSM-IV cannabis dependence was established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Variables assessed as potential predictors of the development of cannabis dependence included sociodemographic factors, cannabis use variables (e.g., motives, consumption habits, cannabis exposure), vulnerability factors (e.g., childhood adversity, family history of mental disorders or substance use problems, personality, mental disorders), and stress factors (e.g., life events, social support). Results: Three-year cumulative incidence of cannabis dependence was 37.2% (95% CI. = 30.7-43.8%). Independent predictors of the first incidence of cannabis dependence included: living alone, coping motives for cannabis use, number and type of recent negative life events (major financial problems), and number and type of cannabis use disorder symptoms (impaired control over use). Cannabis exposure variables and stable vulnerability factors did not independently predict first incidence of cannabis dependence. Conclusions: In a high risk population of young adult frequent cannabis users, current problems are more important predictors of first incidence cannabis dependence than the level and type of cannabis exposure and stable vulnerability factors. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.