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Utrecht, Netherlands

Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam | Smit F.,VU University Amsterdam | Smit F.,Trimbos institute | Bohlmeijer E.,University of Twente | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Background: It is not clear whether the effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy and other psychotherapies have been overestimated because of publication bias. Aims: To examine indicators of publication bias in randomised controlled trials of psychotherapy for adult depression. Method: We examined effect sizes of 117 trials with 175 comparisons between psychotherapy and control conditions. As indicators of publication bias we examined funnel plots, calculated adjusted effect sizes after publication had been taken into account using Duval & Tweedie's procedure, and tested the symmetry of the funnel plots using the Begg & Mazumdar rank correlation test and Egger's test. Results: The mean effect size was 0.67, which was reduced after adjustment for publication bias to 0.42 (51 imputed studies). Both Begg & Mazumbar's test and Egger's test were highly significant (P<0.001). Conclusions: The effects of psychotherapy for adult depression seem to be overestimated considerably because of publication bias. Source

Kuntsche E.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Rossow I.,Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research | Engels R.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Engels R.,Trimbos institute
Addiction | Year: 2016

Aim: To address and discuss the weaknesses of age at first drink (AFD) as a concept in alcohol research and prevention. Methods: Narrative literature review. Results: Varying from one sip to the consumption of several full drinks, and sometimes including the specification of particular conditions (e.g. without parental consent), no exact definition and operationalization of AFD was found. Evidence reveals poor test-retest reliability when the same individuals report their AFD two or more times. Theoretical arguments and empirical evidence fail to explain why having one sip or one drink earlier than peers should cause heavier drinking and related problems later in life. Alternative explanations such as self-selection, third variable effects and systematic report bias are not considered in most studies. These shortcomings also make AFD unsuitable as an indicator or marker of underlying problems such as conduct problems and academic failure. Together with unjustified causal inferences, this has led to an over-emphasis on the relevance of postponing AFD as a way to prevent problems later in life. Conclusion: We argue in favour of shifting the focus of alcohol research and prevention away from AFD towards a better understanding of the progression from infrequent, low-quantity drinking to more detrimental drinking patterns and the prevention of associated acute and short-term harm. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source

Korte J.,University of Twente | Bohlmeijer E.T.,University of Twente | Cappeliez P.,University of Ottawa | Smit F.,Trimbos institute | And 2 more authors.
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2012

Background Although there is substantial evidence for the efficacy of life review therapy as an early treatment of depression in later life, its effectiveness in natural settings has not been studied. The present study evaluates an intervention based on life review and narrative therapy in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT).Method Life review therapy was compared with care as usual. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms; secondary outcomes were anxiety symptoms, positive mental health, quality of life, and current major depressive episode (MDE). To identify groups for whom the intervention was particularly effective, moderator analyses were carried out (on sociodemographic variables, personality traits, reminiscence functions, clinically relevant depressive and anxiety symptoms, and past MDEs).Results Compared with care as usual (n=102), life review therapy (n=100) was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, at post-treatment (d=0.60, B=-5.3, p<0.001), at 3-month follow-up (d=0.50, B=-5.0, p<0.001) and for the intervention also at 9-month follow-up (t=5.7, p<0.001). The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher [odds ratio (OR) 3.77, p<0.001 at post-treatment; OR 3.76, p<0.001 at the 3-month follow-up]. Small significant effects were found for symptoms of anxiety and positive mental health. Moderator analyses showed only two significant moderators, the personality trait of extraversion and the reminiscence function of boredom reduction.Conclusions This study shows the effectiveness of life review therapy as an early intervention for depression in an ecologically valid context, supporting its applicability to a broad target group. The intervention is also effective in reducing anxiety symptoms and strengthening positive mental health. © 2012 Cambridge University Press. Source

Wigman J.T.W.,University Utrecht | Vollebergh W.A.M.,University Utrecht | Raaijmakers Q.A.W.,University Utrecht | Iedema J.,Netherlands Institute for Sea Research | And 5 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2011

The extended psychosis phenotype, or the expression of nonclinical positive psychotic experiences, is already prevalent in adolescence and has a dose-response risk relationship with later psychotic disorder. In 2 large adolescent general population samples (n = 5422 and n = 2230), prevalence and structure of the extended psychosis phenotype was investigated. Positive psychotic experiences, broadly defined, were reported by the majority of adolescents. Exploratory analysis with Structural Equation Modelling (Exploratory Factor Analysis followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis [CFA]) in sample 1 suggested that psychotic experiences were best represented by 5 underlying dimensions; CFA in sample 2 provided a replication of this model. Dimensions were labeled Hallucinations, Delusions, Paranoia, Grandiosity, and Paranormal beliefs. Prevalences differed strongly, Hallucinations having the lowest and Paranoia having the highest rates. Girls reported more experiences on all dimensions, except Grandiosity, and from age 12 to 16 years rates increased. Hallucinations, Delusions, and Paranoia, but not Grandiosity and Paranormal beliefs, were associated with distress and general measures of psychopathology. Thus, only some of the dimensions of the extended psychosis phenotype in young people may represent a continuum with more severe psychopathology and predict later psychiatric disorder. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. Source

Diviani N.,University of Amsterdam | Van Den Putte B.,University of Amsterdam | Van Den Putte B.,Trimbos institute | Giani S.,University of Amsterdam | Van Weert J.C.M.,University of Amsterdam
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2015

Background: Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in consumer online health information seeking. The quality of online health information, however, remains questionable. The issue of information evaluation has become a hot topic, leading to the development of guidelines and checklists to design high-quality online health information. However, little attention has been devoted to how consumers, in particular people with low health literacy, evaluate online health information. Objective: The main aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the association between low health literacy and (1) people's ability to evaluate online health information, (2) perceived quality of online health information, (3) trust in online health information, and (4) use of evaluation criteria for online health information. Methods: Five academic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete) were systematically searched. We included peer-reviewed publications investigating differences in the evaluation of online information between people with different health literacy levels. Results: After abstract and full-text screening, 38 articles were included in the review. Only four studies investigated the specific role of low health literacy in the evaluation of online health information. The other studies examined the association between educational level or other skills-based proxies for health literacy, such as general literacy, and outcomes. Results indicate that low health literacy (and related skills) are negatively related to the ability to evaluate online health information and trust in online health information. Evidence on the association with perceived quality of online health information and use of evaluation criteria is inconclusive. Conclusions: The findings indicate that low health literacy (and related skills) play a role in the evaluation of online health information. This topic is therefore worth more scholarly attention. Based on the results of this review, future research in this field should (1) specifically focus on health literacy, (2) devote more attention to the identification of the different criteria people use to evaluate online health information, (3) develop shared definitions and measures for the most commonly used outcomes in the field of evaluation of online health information, and (4) assess the relationship between the different evaluative dimensions and the role played by health literacy in shaping their interplay. Source

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