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Wright D.,Trilateral Research and Consulting
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2012

There is growing interest in Europe in privacy impact assessment (PIA). The UK introduced the first PIA methodology in Europe in 2007, and Ireland followed in 2010. PIAs provide a way to detect potential privacy problems, take precautions and build tailored safeguards before, not after, the organisation makes heavy investments in the development of a new technology, service or product. This paper presents some findings from the Privacy Impact Assessment Framework (PIAF) project and, in particular, the project's first deliverable, which analyses the similarities and differences between PIA methodologies in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, with a view to picking out the best elements which could be used in constructing an optimised PIA methodology for Europe. The project, which began in January 2011, is being undertaken for the European Commission's Directorate General Justice. The first deliverable was completed in September. The paper provides some background on privacy impact assessment, identifies some of its benefits and discusses elements that can be used in construction of a state-of-the-art PIA methodology. © 2011 David Wright. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Watson H.,Trilateral Research and Consulting
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2012

This article seeks to provide results from an investigation into the impact of dependent citizen journalism on the publicity of terror. In the past, many academics have identified the importance of publicity to an act of terror drawing on the concept of "propaganda by deed." This article presents results of a study into the impact of a distinct form of journalism in the digital era, dependent citizen journalism, on the publicity of terror. The argument is put forth that dependent citizen journalism generates distinctive, additional publicity to a terrorist attack. The article seeks to show how this publicity differs and what negative consequences there are to the involvement of dependent citizen journalists in the reporting process. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Lagazio M.,Trilateral Research and Consulting | Sherif N.,Incisive Media | Cushman M.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Computers and Security | Year: 2014

This paper puts forward a multi-level model, based on system dynamics methodology, to understand the impact of cyber crime on the financial sector. Consistent with recent findings, our results show that strong dynamic relationships, amongst tangible and intangible factors, affect cyber crime cost and occur at different levels of society and value network. Specifically, shifts in financial companies' strategic priorities, having the protection of customer trust and loyalty as a key objective, together with considerations related to market positioning vis-à-vis competitors are important factors in determining the cost of cyber crime. Most of these costs are not driven by the number of cyber crime incidents experienced by financial companies but rather by the way financial companies choose to go about in protecting their business interests and market positioning in the presence of cyber crime. Financial companies' strategic behaviour as response to cyber crime, especially in regard to over-spending on defence measures and chronic under-reporting, has also an important consequence at overall sector and society levels, potentially driving the cost of cyber crime even further upwards. Unwanted consequences, such as weak policing, weak international frameworks for tackling cyber attacks and increases in the jurisdictional arbitrage opportunities for cyber criminals can all increase the cost of cyber crime, while inhibiting integrated and effective measures to address the problem. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Wright D.,Trilateral Research and Consulting | Friedewald M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2013

New and emerging technologies often raise both ethical and privacy issues. The analysis and assessment of such issues is the task of privacy impact assessments and ethical impact assessments. Although there are various privacy impact assessment methodologies and ethical impact assessment methodologies, the two have not been integrated. Nevertheless, some researchers have been thinking about the utility and feasibility of integrating privacy and ethical impact assessment methodologies. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Wright D.,Trilateral Research and Consulting
Ethics and Information Technology | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a framework for an ethical impact assessment which can be performed in regard to any policy, service, project or programme involving information technology. The framework is structured on the four principles posited by Beauchamp and Childress together with a separate section on privacy and data protection. The framework identifies key social values and ethical issues, provides some brief explanatory contextual information which is then followed by a set of questions aimed at the technology developer or policy-maker to facilitate consideration of ethical issues, in consultation with stakeholders, which may arise in their undertaking. In addition, the framework includes a set of ethical tools and procedural practices which can be employed as part of the ethical impact assessment. Although the framework has been developed within a European context, it could be applied equally well beyond European borders. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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