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Patnaik B.B.,Chonnam National University | Patnaik B.B.,Trident Academy of Creative Technology TACT | Patnaik H.H.,Chonnam National University | Park K.B.,Chonnam National University | And 3 more authors.
Entomological Research | Year: 2015

Insect apolipophorin-III is an exchangeable protein that is abundantly found in the hemolymph, and serves an important role in lipid transport, development, and innate immunity. In this study, we examined the role of apolipophorin-III (TmapoLp-III) during the adult eclosion stages of Tenebrio molitor by RNA interference (RNAi) analysis. After silencing of the mRNA transcripts at both larval and pupal stages, adult phenotypic defects were noticed. Defects included the incomplete shedding of pupal skin, shorter extension of the elytra, and improper folding of the hind wings. Most of the adults were malformed and died possibly due to dehydration. We also showed the involvement of TmapoLp-III in conferring resistance to T.molitor larvae against Listeria monocytogenes infection. Mortality was found to be lower in non-silenced intoxicated larvae while the TmapoLp-III silenced larvae showed a significant susceptibility after 7 days post-injection with a dose of 106cfu/larvae. © 2015 The Entomological Society of Korea and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

Patnaik B.B.,Soonchunhyang University | Patnaik B.B.,Trident Academy of Creative Technology TACT | Hwang H.-J.,Soonchunhyang University | Kang S.W.,Soonchunhyang University | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2015

The Lycaenidae butterflies, Protantigius superans and Spindasis takanosis, are endangered insects in Korea known for their symbiotic association with ants. However, necessary genomic and transcriptomics data are lacking in these species, limiting conservation efforts. In this study, the P. superans and S. takanosis transcriptomes were deciphered using Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing. The P. superans and S. takanosis transcriptome data included a total of 254,340,693 and 245,110,582 clean reads assembled into 159,074 and 170,449 contigs and 107,950 and 121,140 unigenes, respectively. BLASTX hits (E-value of 1.0 × 10-5) against the known protein databases annotated a total of 46,754 and 51,908 transcripts for P. superans and S. takanosis. Approximately 41.25% and 38.68% of the unigenes for P. superans and S. takanosis found homologous sequences in Protostome DB (PANM-DB). BLAST2GO analysis confirmed 18,611 unigenes representing Gene Ontology (GO) terms and a total of 5259 unigenes assigned to 116 pathways for P. superans. For S. takanosis, a total of 6697 unigenes were assigned to 119 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database. Additionally, 382,164 and 390,516 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were compiled from the unigenes of P. superans and S. takanosis, respectively. This is the first report to record new genes and their utilization for conservation of lycaenid species population and as a reference information for closely related species. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Patnaik B.B.,Soonchunhyang University | Patnaik B.B.,Trident Academy of Creative Technology TACT | Wang T.H.,Soonchunhyang University | Kang S.W.,Soonchunhyang University | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: The freshwater mussel Cristaria plicata (Bivalvia: Eulamellibranchia: Unionidae), is an economically important species in molluscan aquaculture due to its use in pearl farming. The species have been listed as endangered in South Korea due to the loss of natural habitats caused by anthropogenic activities. The decreasing population and a lack of genomic information on the species is concerning for environmentalists and conservationists. In this study, we conducted a de novo transcriptome sequencing and annotation analysis of C. plicata using Illumina HiSeq 2500 next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, the Trinity assembler, and bioinformatics databases to prepare a sustainable resource for the identification of candidate genes involved in immunity, defense, and reproduction. Results: The C. plicata transcriptome analysis included a total of 286,152,584 raw reads and 281,322,837 clean reads. The de novo assembly identified a total of 453,931 contigs and 374,794 non-redundant unigenes with average lengths of 731.2 and 737.1 bp, respectively. Furthermore, 100% coverage of C. plicata mitochondrial genes within two unigenes supported the quality of the assembler. In total, 84,274 unigenes showed homology to entries in at least one database, and 23,246 unigenes were allocated to one or more Gene Ontology (GO) terms. The most prominent GO biological process, cellular component, and molecular function categories (level 2) were cellular process, membrane, and binding, respectively. A total of 4,776 unigenes were mapped to 123 biological pathways in the KEGG database. Based on the GO terms and KEGG annotation, the unigenes were suggested to be involved in immunity, stress responses, sex-determination, and reproduction. A total of 17,251 cDNA simple sequence repeats (cSSRs) were identified from 61,141 unigenes (size of >1 kb) with the most abundant being dinucleotide repeats. Conclusions: This dataset represents the first transcriptome analysis of the endangered mollusc, C. plicata. The transcriptome provides a comprehensive sequence resource for the conservation of genetic information in this species and enrichment of the genetic database. The development of molecular markers will assist in the genetic improvement of C. plicata. © 2016 Patnaik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Jung E.-G.,Soonchunhyang University | Han K.-I.,Soonchunhyang University | Hwang S.G.,Soonchunhyang University | Kwon H.-J.,Korea University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Caesalpinia sappan L. extracts exhibit great therapeutic potential, and have been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to understand the anti-rheumatoid activity of brazilin that was isolated from ethyl acetate extract of C. sappan L. The evaluations were conducted in mice with type-II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods: Brazilin was purified via preparative HPLC and identified by mass spectrometry and 1H/13C NMR analysis. DBA/1J mice were divided into four groups (n=10). Three groups of mice received intradermal injections of inducer bovine type-II collagen (BTIIC; 2mg/ml in 0.05ml acetic acid) and 0.1ml of booster complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). A second injection of BTIIC with booster incomplete Freund's adjuvant (ICFA) was given subsequently after 21days. On 22nd day, purified brazilin (10mg/kg body weight) or the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug methotrexate (3mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally daily or every three days for 21days, respectively to two groups of mice. At the 42nd day, mice sera were collected, and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress enzyme markers in serum were measured using standard immunoassay methods. The microstructure and morphometric analyses of the bones were assessed using high-resolution microfocal computed tomography. Results: Brazilin isolated from C. sappan reduced the arthritis index score and the extent of acute inflammatory paw edema in CIA-mice. The bone mineral density was significantly (p<0.05) lower in only-CIA mice, and appeared to increase commensurate with methotrexate and brazilin administration. Brazilin prevented joint destruction, surface erosion, and enhanced bone formation as revealed by microstructural examinations. Brazilin markedly attenuated mouse CIA and reduced the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Conclusions: Brazilin purified from C. sappan L. shows protective efficacy in CIA mouse, and may be useful to treat chronic inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. © 2015 Jung et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Patnaik B.B.,Soonchunhyang University | Patnaik B.B.,Trident Academy of Creative Technology TACT | Park S.Y.,Soonchunhyang University | Kang S.W.,Soonchunhyang University | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Genomics | Year: 2016

Vespa mandarinia found in the forests of East Asia, including Korea, occupies the highest rank in the arthropod food web within its geographical range. It serves as a source of nutrition in the form of Vespa amino acid mixture and is listed as a threatened species, although no conservation measures have been implemented. Here, we performed de novo assembly of the V. mandarinia transcriptome by Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing. Over 60 million raw reads and 59,184,811 clean reads were obtained. After assembly, a total of 66,837 unigenes were clustered, 40,887, 44,455, and 22,390 of which showed homologous matches against the PANM, Unigene, and KOG databases, respectively. A total of 15,675 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology terms, and 5,132 unigenes were mapped to 115 KEGG pathways. The zinc finger domain (C2H2-like), serine/threonine/dual specificity protein kinase domain, and RNA recognition motif domain were among the top InterProScan domains predicted for V. mandarinia sequences. Among the unigenes, we identified 534,922 cDNA simple sequence repeats as potential markers. This is the first transcriptomic analysis of the wasp V. mandarinia using Illumina HiSeq 4000. The obtained datasets should promote the search for new genes to understand the physiological attributes of this wasp. © 2016 Bharat Bhusan Patnaik et al. Source

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