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Kathmandu, Nepal

Tribhuvan University is a public university in Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Established in 1959, TU is the oldest of the five universities in Nepal. Enrolment in 2013-2014 was tenth largest in the world. The university provides undergraduate and graduate education. More than 4,400 courses are offered, of which 500 are for intermediate-level courses , 2,079 are for undergraduate and 2,000 are for postgraduate programs. The university has 85 integral colleges and more than 600 affiliated colleges throughout the country. Since it is government financed, it is less expensive than private universities. Wikipedia.

Although uterine prolapse (UP) occurs commonly in Nepal, little is known about the physical health and care-seeking practices of women with UP. This study aimed to explore women's experiences of UP and its effect on daily life, its perceived causes, and health care-seeking practices. Using a convenience sampling method, we conducted 115 semi-structured and 16 in-depth interviews with UP-affected women during September-December 2012. All interviews occurred in outreach clinics in villages of the Dhading district. Study participants were 23-82 years of age. Twenty-four percent were literate, 47.2% had experienced a teenage pregnancy, and 29% had autonomy to make healthcare decisions. Most participants (>85%) described the major physical discomforts of UP as difficulty with walking, standing, working, sitting, and lifting. They also reported urinary incontinence (68%) bowel symptoms (42%), and difficulty with sexual activity (73.9%). Due to inability to perform household chores or fulfill their husband's sexual desires, participants endured humiliation, harassment, and torture by their husbands and other family members, causing severe emotional stress. Following disclosure of UP, 24% of spouses remarried and 6% separated from the marital relationship. Women perceived the causes of UP as unsafe childbirth, heavy work during the postpartum period, and gender discrimination. Prior to visiting these camps some women (42%) hid UP for more than 10 years. Almost half (48%) of participants sought no health care; 42% ingested a herb and ate nutritious food. Perceived barriers to accessing health care included shame (48%) and feeling that care was unnecessary (12.5%). Multiple responses (29%) included shame, inability to share, male service provider, fear of stigma and discrimination, and perceiving UP as normal for childbearing women. UP adversely affects women's daily life and negatively influences their physical, mental, and social well-being. The results of our study are useful to generate information on UP symptoms and female health care seeking practices. Our findings can be helpful for effective development of UP awareness programs to increase service utilization at early stages of UP and thereby might contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of UP.

Dahal R.K.,Tribhuvan University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

Landslide susceptibility zonation mapping is a fundamental procedure for geo-disaster management in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Recently, various landslide susceptibility zonation models have been introduced in Nepal with diverse approaches of assessment. However, validation is still a problem. Additionally, the role of various predisposing causative parameters for landslide activity is still not well understood in the Nepal Himalaya. To address these issues of susceptibility zonation and landslide activity, about 4,000 km2 area of central Nepal was selected for regional-scale assessment of landslide activity and susceptibility zonation mapping. In total, 655 new landslides and 9,229 old landslides were identified with the study area with the help of satellite images, aerial photographs, field data and available reports. The old landslide inventory was "blind landslide database" and could not explain the particular rainfall event responsible for the particular landslide. But considering size of the landslide, blind landslide inventory was reclassified into two databases: short-duration high-intensity rainfall-induced landslide inventory and long-duration low-intensity rainfall-induced landslide inventory. These landslide inventory maps were considered as proxy maps of multiple rainfall event-based landslide inventories. Similarly, all 9,884 landslides were considered for the activity assessment of predisposing causative parameters. For the Nepal Himalaya, slope, slope aspect, geology and road construction activity (anthropogenic cause) were identified as most affective predisposing causative parameters for landslide activity. For susceptibility zonation, multivariate approach was considered and two proxy rainfall event-based landslide databases were used for the logistic regression modelling, while a relatively recent landslide database was used in validation. Two event-based susceptibility zonation maps were merged and rectified to prepare the final susceptibility zonation map and its prediction rate was found to be more than 82 %. From this work, it is concluded that rectification of susceptibility zonation map is very appropriate and reliable. The results of this research contribute to a significant improvement in landslide inventory preparation procedure, susceptibility zonation mapping approaches as well as role of various predisposing causative parameters for the landslide activity. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lohani U.,Tribhuvan University
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2010

Background: Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal.There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction.Methods: Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions.Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005.Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys.Results: The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos.Conclusions: The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a material as well as spiritual level. While some animals are the sources of important traditional medicines, others are omen indicators and weather forecasters. High priority should be given in conservation of those animals which are of high consensus value to the community. © 2010 Lohani; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Adhikari D.,Tribhuvan University
Phase Transitions | Year: 2011

The disorder in thermodynamic and microscopic structure of liquid Cu-Pd alloy at 1350 K has been studied using regular associated solution model. For this, we have calculated free energy of mixing (GM), activity (a), concentration fluctuation in long wavelength limit [SCC(0)] and chemical short-range order parameter (1) of liquid Cu-Pd alloy at 1350 K. The energetic and structural asymmetry of liquid Cu-Pd alloys has been successfully explained on the basis of regular associated solution model. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Adhikari R.,Tribhuvan University
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

In this paper, we present an overview of Ayurvedic Bhasmas as nanomedicine of herbo-metallic and mineral origin with particular attention to their structural aspects. We find, the Bhasmas as nanomedicines may offer a huge potential for designing new drugs employing the concept of nanotechnology. Thus, the standardization of fabrication process of these formulations is a crucial issue to be addressed. The structure and effectiveness of the Bhasmas as drugs depend largely on their processing history. Bhasmas are generally safe drugs for human beings in spite of the presence of seemingly toxic elements and compounds as indicated by recent studies using modern analytical techniques. Nevertheless, more systematic nanomaterialistic investigations on Bhasmas are recommended for gaining the complete and reliable composition-processing-structure-effectiveness picture of these drugs. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.

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