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Chang T.-H.,Tri Services General Hospital | Hsu H.-H.,National Defense Medical Center | Chou Y.-C.,National Defense Medical Center | Yu J.-C.,National Defense Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background and Objectives The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) of Mammography (MG) and Ultrasonography (US) were equivalent to the "5-point score" and applied for combined and sub-stratified imaging assessments. This study evaluated the value of combined and sub-stratified imaging assessments with MG and US over breast cancer subtypes (BCS). Materials and Methods Medical records of 5,037 cases having imaging-guided core biopsy, performed from 2009 to 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. This study selected 1,995 cases (1,457 benign and 538 invasive cancer) having both MG and US before biopsy. These cases were categorized with the "5-point score" for their MG and US, and applied for combined and sub-stratified imaging assessments. Invasive cancers were classified on the basis of BCS, and correlated with combined and sub-stratified imaging assessments. Results These selected cases were evaluated by the "5-point score." MG, US, and combined and sub-stratified imaging assessments all revealed statistically significant (P 0.001) incidence of malignancy. The sensitivity was increased in the combined imaging score (99.8%), and the specificity was increased in the sub-stratified combined score (75.4%). In the sub-stratified combined imaging assessment, all BCS can be classified with higher scores (abnormality hierarchy), and luminal B subtype showed the most salient result (hierarchy: higher, 95%; lower, 5%). Conclusions Combined and sub-stratified imaging assessments can increase sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer diagnosis, respectively, and Luminal B subtype shows the best identification by sub-stratified combined imaging scoring. © 2015 Chang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Hsu C.C.,National Health Research Institute | Hwang S.J.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Tai T.Y.,Taipei Jen Chi Relief Institution | Chen T.,Tulane University | And 11 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2010

Aims: Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor associated with diabetic nephropathy. The objective of this study was to further investigate the dose-response effect of tobacco exposure on proteinuria in males with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Five hundred and nine males with Type 2 diabetes were selected from a cohort participating in a glucose control study in Taiwan. Pack-years of cigarette smoking were calculated to define tobacco exposure. Proteinuria was identified if albumin-to-creatinine ratio was ≥ 30 mg/g in at least two of three consecutive urine tests. Logistic regression and trend tests were used to delineate the association between smoking status and proteinuria. Results: Compared with non-smokers, those who had smoked 15-30 or more than 30 pack-years were respectively 2.78 (95% CI 1.34-5.76, P < 0.01) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.74-5.86, P < 0.001) times more likely to develop proteinuria. The dose-response effect of tobacco exposure on the development of proteinuria is highly significant in all subjects (P = 0.001) and in subgroups with relatively short duration of diabetes mellitus (P < 0.001), good blood pressure control (P = 0.001) and those of young age (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The current study shows a clear dose-response effect of cigarette smoking on development of proteinuria in male Type 2 diabetic patients. These findings reinforce the urgent need to encourage diabetic patients to stop smoking regardless of age, duration of diabetes mellitus or status of blood pressure control. © 2010 The Authors.

Horng C.-T.,Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital | Horng C.-T.,Tajen University | Tsai M.-L.,Tri Services General Hospital | Shiang J.-C.,Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Life Science Journal | Year: 2011

Glaucoma is one of the world's leading causes of blindness. Astragalus membranaceus is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for a long time. The aim of our study is to evaluate the activity of lowering intraocular pressure through the use of Astragalus membranaceus extract (AME) in an experimental glaucoma model. The rats used in the study were divided into six groups: one sham group, two positive control groups with topical brimonidine instillation and oral acetazolamide therapy, and three groups treated with AME (low, medium and high dosage). The antioxidant activity of AME was accessible by MDA and GPx levels. The ability to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) signified the efficiency of treating glaucoma. The results revealed that AME may decrease the MDA production and restore the GPx level in the periocular blood. This extremely beneficial effect may be by the same as that of brimonidine. Furthermore, AME also showed the ability to significantly lower IOP as is the case with brimonidine and acetazolamide. AME is a relatively safe Chinese herbal medicine with no observed side effects such as body-weight loss, or pathological change. In conclusion, the extract of Astragalus membranaceus is beneficial in treating glaucoma during the development of progression of this disease due to its significant IOP and antioxidant activities.

Hung H.-C.,National Health Research Institute | Liu C.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Hsu J.T.-A.,National Health Research Institute | Hsu J.T.-A.,National Chiao Tung University | And 7 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Recent studies have shown that NP (nucleoprotein), which possesses multiple functions in the viral life cycle, is a new potential anti-influenza drug target. NP inhibitors reliably induce conformational changes in NPs, and these changes may confer inhibition of the influenza virus. The six conserved tryptophan residues in NP can be used as an intrinsic probe to monitor the change in fluorescence of the tryptophan residues in the protein upon binding to an NP inhibitor. In the present study, we found that the fluorescence of recombinant NP proteins was quenched following the binding of available NP inhibitors (such as nucleozin) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which suggests that the inhibitor induced conformational changes in the NPs. The minimal fluorescence-quenching effect and weak binding constant of nucleozin to the swine-origin influenza virus H1N1pdm09 (SOIV) NP revealed that the SOIV is resistant to nucleozin. We have used the fluorescence-quenching property of tryptophans in NPs that were bound to ligands in a 96-well-plate-based drug screen to assess the ability of promising small molecules to interact with NPs and have identified one new anti-influenza drug, CSV0C001018, with a high SI value. This convenient method for drug screening may facilitate the development of antiviral drugs that target viruses other than the influenza virus, such as HIV and HBV. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Jan H.-J.,Taipei Medical University | Lee C.-C.,Shin Kong Memorial Hospital | Shih Y.-L.,Shin Kong Memorial Hospital | Hueng D.-Y.,Tri Services General Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2010

Human malignant glioma cells are characterized by local invasion. In the present study, we investigated the role of osteopontin (OPN) in the invasiveness of human glioma cells isolated from grade IV tumors. We found that the expression levels of OPN in these cell lines paralleled matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and cell invasiveness potential. When U87MG glioma cells (with a high-OPN expression level) were stably transformed with specific small hairpin RNA to knock down OPN expression, MMP-2 secretion, cell invasiveness, and tumor growth in implanted brains were dramatically reduced. Conversely, forced expression of OPN in GBM-SKH glioma cells (which expressed OPN at a low level) increased MMP-2 secretion, enhanced cell invasiveness, and increased tumor growth in a rodent xenograft model. Expression of OPN was associated with increased expression of vimentin and decreased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. Treatment of glioma cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) suppressed OPN expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Suppression of OPN expression by 5-aza-dC was associated with reductions in MMP-2 secretion, vimentin expression, cell invasion, intravasation, and tumor growth. These data suggest that OPN may play important roles in regulating cell invasion in glioma cells and that 5-aza-dC may serve as a therapeutic agent for human gliomas. © The Author(s) 2009.

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