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Prieto N.,University of Alberta | Prieto N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Swift M.L.,TRI GEN Fish Improvement Ltd | Summerfelt S.T.,Conservation Fund | And 3 more authors.
Food Analytical Methods

Some species of actinomycetes, fungi, and blue-green algae produce semivolatile off-flavor compounds responsible for earthy-musty odorants in water from aquaculture facilities and tend to bioaccumulate within fish flesh. Although these off-flavor compounds are harmless to human health, high levels within fish tissue lead to an undesirable taste leading to an unmarketable consumption quality. Preharvest processes such as depuration can be used to eliminate most of these off-flavor compounds and ultimately enhance salmon quality. This study examined the potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to discriminate depurated from nondepurated salmon fillets (n = 62). Partial least squares discriminant analysis based on NIR spectra correctly classified 100 % of non-depurated and depurated salmon fillets. The successful classification was likely a consequence of statistically significant differences in the content of off-flavor compounds between both samples, which could have been detected by NIR spectra. Thus, NIRS is a fast, inexpensive, solvent-free, and non-destructive technology that can be used for the authentication of salmon with enhanced quality for marketing purposes. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Davidson J.,The Conservation Funds Freshwater Institute | Schrader K.,University of Mississippi | Ruan E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Swift B.,TRI GEN Fish Improvement Ltd | And 6 more authors.
Aquacultural Engineering

Fish cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can acquire "earthy" or "musty" off-flavors due to bioaccumulation of the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, which are produced by certain bacterial species present in RAS biosolids and microbial biofilms. Fish cultured in RAS are generally transferred to separate depuration systems that are flushed with water in a single pass or operated with limited water recirculation (with no biofilter), in order to purge these unpalatable flavors. Technologies and standard operating practices that optimize purging kinetics for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and other species cultured in RAS are needed to improve the consistency and efficacy of depuration. A 2×2 factorial trial was conducted to evaluate techniques to mitigate off-flavor from Atlantic salmon cultured to 3-5kg in a semi-commercial scale freshwater RAS. Twelve replicated depuration systems (0.5m3) were used to evaluate four combinations (n=3) of the following standard operating procedure and system design parameters: (1) disinfection of depuration systems as a 1h static treatment using 250mg/L hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) prior to stocking fish, (2) no disinfection prior to stocking fish, (3) presence of water aeration media within gas transfer columns of depuration systems, and (4) absence of water aeration media within gas transfer columns of depuration systems. Food-size Atlantic salmon were stocked within the depuration systems and kept off feed for 10 days. Six salmon were harvested from the original RAS on Day 0 and fileted for baseline assessment of off-flavor concentrations. Thereafter, filet samples (n=3-4) were taken on Days 3, 6, and 10 to evaluate off-flavor kinetics. Hydrogen peroxide disinfection of depuration systems resulted in significantly reduced off-flavor in salmon filets during the depuration period. Results also indicated that the presence of high-surface-area water aeration media shielded biofilms from complete disinfection, resulting in less and slower off-flavor removal from Atlantic salmon filets; while depuration systems void of media resulted in greater and more rapid off-flavor reduction. Thus, water aeration media should not be used in depuration systems because of the challenges posed for effective cleaning, disinfection, and inactivation of off-flavor producing bacteria that may be present, and unit processes and locations that are difficult-to-clean should be excluded. In addition, a wide range of off-flavor concentrations were measured within individual salmon, indicating that one salmon is not a representative sample size to determine market suitability. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Gutierrez A.P.,Simon Fraser University | Yan Ez J.M.,University of Chile | Fukui S.,Cermaq Canada | Swift B.,TRI GEN Fish Improvement Ltd | Davidson W.S.,Simon Fraser University

Early sexual maturation is considered a serious drawback for Atlantic salmon aquaculture as it retards growth, increases production times and affects flesh quality. Although both growth and sexual maturation are thought to be complex processes controlled by several genetic and environmental factors, selection for these traits has been continuously accomplished since the beginning of Atlantic salmon selective breeding programs. In this genomewide association study (GWAS) we used a 6.5K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to genotype ∼480 individuals from the Cermaq Canada broodstock program and search for SNPs associated with growth and age at sexual maturation. Using a mixed model approach we identified markers showing a significant association with growth, grilsing (early sexual maturation) and late sexual maturation. The most significant associations were found for grilsing, with markers located in Ssa10, Ssa02, Ssa13, Ssa25 and Ssa12, and for late maturation with markers located in Ssa28, Ssa01 and Ssa21. A lower level of association was detected with growth on Ssa13. Candidate genes, which were linked to these genetic markers, were identified and some of them show a direct relationship with developmental processes, especially for those in association with sexual maturation. However, the relatively low power to detect genetic markers associated with growth (days to 5 kg) in this GWAS indicates the need to use a higher density SNP array in order to overcome the low levels of linkage disequilibrium observed in Atlantic salmon before the information can be incorporated into a selective breeding program. Copyright: © 2015 Gutierrez et al. Source

Ruan E.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Aalhus J.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Summerfelt S.T.,Conservation Fund | Davidson J.,Conservation Fund | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A

A sensitive and solvent-less method for the determination of musty and earthy off-flavor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin (GSM), in salmon tissue was developed using stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-TD-GCMS). MIB and GSM were solid phase extracted using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated stir bars, analyzed by gas chromatography, and detected in full scan mode of mass selective detector (MSD). Using this method, the calibration curves of MIB and GSM were linear in the range of 0.3-100. ng/L, with a correlation coefficient above 0.999 and RSDs less than 4% (n=4). The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3, n=6) and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10, n=6) of MIB and GSM were both ~0.3 and 1. ng/L, respectively. The recoveries of MIB and GSM were 22% and 29% by spike in 30. ng/L standard compounds, 23% and 30% by spike-in 100. ng/L standard compounds in salmon tissue samples with good precision (<8% of RSDs, n=6), respectively. The recoveries of MIB and GSM were better than reported methodologies using SPME fibres (<10%) in fish tissue samples. This method was successfully applied to monitor and characterize depurated salmon fillet samples (0, 3, 6 and 10 days). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Gutierrez A.P.,Simon Fraser University | Lubieniecki K.P.,Simon Fraser University | Fukui S.,Mainstream Canada | Withler R.E.,Pacific Biological Station | And 2 more authors.
Marine Biotechnology

In Atlantic salmon aquaculture, early sexual maturation represents a major problem for producers. This is especially true for grilse, which mature after one sea winter before reaching a desirable harvest weight, rather than after two sea winters. Salmon maturing as grilse have a much lower market value than later maturing individuals. For this reason, most companies desire fish that grow fast and mature late. Marker-assisted selection has the potential to improve the efficiency of selection against early maturation and for late sexual maturation; however, studies identifying age of sexual maturation-related genetic markers are lacking for Atlantic salmon. Therefore, we used a 6.5K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to genotype five families from the Mainstream Canada broodstock program and search for SNPs associated with early (grilsing) or late sexual maturation. There were 529 SNP loci that were variable across all five families, and this was the set that was used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. GridQTL identified two chromosomes, Ssa10 and Ssa21, containing QTL related to grilsing. In contrast, only one QTL, on Ssa18, was found linked to late maturation in Atlantic salmon. Our previous work on these five families did not identify genome-wide significant growth-related QTL on Ssa10, Ssa21, or Ssa18. Therefore, taken together, these results suggest that both grilsing and late sexual maturation are controlled independently of one another and also from growth-related traits. The identification of genomic regions associated with grilsing or late sexual maturation provide an opportunity to incorporate this information into selective breeding programs that will enhance Atlantic salmon farming. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

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