Brenca M.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Rossi S.,Treviso General Hospital |
Polano M.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Gasparotto D.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2016
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. The vast majority of GISTs are driven by oncogenic activation of KIT, PDGFRA or, less commonly, BRAF. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase complex activity has been identified in subsets of KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutation negative tumours, yet a significant fraction of GISTs are devoid of any of such alterations. To address the pathobiology of these 'quadruple-negative' GISTs, we sought to explore the possible involvement of fusion genes. To this end we performed transcriptome sequencing on five KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutation negative, SDH-proficient tumours. Intriguingly, the analysis unveiled the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. The screening by FISH of 26 additional cases, including KIT/PDGFRA-mutated GISTs, failed to detect other ETV6 rearrangements beside the index case. This was a 'quadruple-negative' GIST located in the rectum, an uncommon primary site for GIST development (∼4% of all GISTs). The fusion transcript identified encompasses exon 4 of ETV6 and exon 14 of NTRK3 and therefore differs from the canonical ETV6-NTRK3 chimera of infantile fibrosarcomas. However, it retains the ability to induce IRS1 phosphorylation, activate the IGF1R downstream signalling pathway and to be targeted by IGF1R and ALK inhibitors. Thus, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion might identify a subset of GISTs with peculiar clinicopathological characteristics which could be eligible for such therapies. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lorenzetto E.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Brenca M.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Boeri M.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Verri C.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
And 9 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014
The transcriptional coactivator YAP1 is a critical effector of the human Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway. Literature data report apparently discrepant results on the carcinogenic role of YAP1, which acts either as oncogene or as tumor suppressor in different in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, genomic amplification events of 11q22 locus encompassing YAP1 gene have been detected in multiple tumor types but there is limited direct evidence about the oncogenic role of endogenous YAP1 within in the amplicon. We screened a panel of human tumor samples and cancer cell lines and identified that the YAP1 amplification event is actually present in up to 23% of the cases. We exploited EKVX (lung cancer), CaSki (cervical cancer) and RO82 (thyroid cancer) cell lines harboring both genomic YAP1 amplification and YAP1 protein overexpression, in order to study the effects of downregulation of endogenous YAP1 by RNA-interference strategies. Class comparison analysis of gene expression profiling data identified 707 statistically significantly modulated genes (multivariable global test p-value = 0.002) that were functionally annotated for cell proliferation and cellular movement ontologies. Mechanistic studies of the identified perturbed pathways revealed that YAP1 silencing significantly decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle perturbation associated with upregulation of p21 and p27 cell-cycle inhibitors, reduced cell migration (p<0.048) and anchorage-independent growth (p<0.02). In CaSki cell line, YAP1 silencing induced significantly increased sensitivity and cell-death response to cisplatin treatment (p=0.011) as well as reduction of in-vivo tumorigenic potential (p=0.027). Overall, these results establish that YAP1 is a direct oncogenic target of the 11q22 amplicon in previously unreported cancer types and support the relevance of such genetic aberration in carcinogenesis in a fraction of multiple tumor types.
Piccinin S.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Tonin E.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Sessa S.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Demontis S.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
And 10 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2012
Twist proteins have been shown to contribute to cancer development and progression by impinging on different regulatory pathways, but their mechanism of action is poorly defined. By investigating the role of Twist in sarcomas, we found that Twist1 acts as a mechanism alternative to TP53 mutation and MDM2 overexpression to inactivate p53 in mesenchymal tumors. We provide evidence that Twist1 binds p53 C terminus through the Twist box. This interaction hinders key posttranslational modifications of p53 and facilitates its MDM2-mediated degradation. Our study suggests the existence of a Twist box code of p53 inactivation and provides the proof of principle that targeting the Twist box:p53 interaction might offer additional avenues for cancer treatment. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Vincenzi B.,Biomedical University of Rome |
Silletta M.,Biomedical University of Rome |
Schiavon G.,Royal Marsden Hospital |
Frezza A.M.,Biomedical University of Rome |
And 5 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2013
Background: To report on the anti-tumour activity and toxicity of sorafenib combined with dacarbazine in patients with pre-treated advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STSs). Methods: From November 2009 to December 2010, 17 patients affected by STSs who had failed two or more regimen of chemotherapy, with a performance status ≤ 2 and measurable disease were consecutively enrolled in the present case series. Sorafenib was administered at 400 mg b.i.d. continuous dosing in combination with dacarbazine, 300 mg/m2 for three consecutive days every 21 days until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Results: Fourteen patients were evaluable for response. Three patients stopped treatment early and were not evaluable for response. One of them died for not disease-dependent reason, the other two went off-study due to rapid clinical worsening, without performing radiologic evaluation. No complete responses were registered. As by RECIST, partial responses (PR) were observed in three patients (21%), stable disease (SD) in six patients (43%) and progressive disease (PD) in five patients (36%), with a clinical benefit rate (RECIST PR±SD > 6 months) of 64%. The median time of progression was 20 weeks (range: 9-34 weeks) and the median overall survival was 43 weeks (range: 17-65 weeks). The main toxicities were neutropenia (36%), thrombocytopenia (36%), hypertension (36%), fatigue (50%) and skin reactions (57%). Five patients required dose reductions (both dacarbazine and sorafenib) for toxicity and three patients required only sorafenib reduction for dermatologic reactions. One patient was taken off-study because of severe sorafenib-related dermatologic toxicity. Conclusions: Sorafenib and dacarbazine combination seems to be an active and safety regimen in pre-treated STSs. A Phase II trial is ongoing in patient affected by selected sarcoma subtypes. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.
Dedifferentiation in gastrointestinal stromal tumor to an anaplastic kit-negative phenotype: A diagnostic pitfall: Morphologic and molecular characterization of 8 cases occurring either de novo or after imatinib therapy
Antonescu C.R.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Romeo S.,Treviso General Hospital |
Zhang L.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Nafa K.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2013
Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can be recognized by their monotonous cytologic features and overexpression of KIT oncoprotein. Altered morphology and loss of CD117 reactivity has been described previously after chronic imatinib treatment; however, this phenomenon has not been reported in imatinib-naive tumors. Eight patients with abrupt transition from a classic CD117-positive spindle cell GIST to an anaplastic CD117-negative tumor were investigated for underlying molecular mechanisms of tumor progression. Pathologic and molecular analysis was performed on each of the 2 components. Genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction for KIT, PDGFRA, BRAF, and KRAS hot spot mutations and fluorescence in situ hybridization for detecting KIT gene copy number alterations were performed. TP53 mutational analysis was performed in 5 cases. There were 7 men and 1 woman, with an age range of 23 to 65 years. Five of the primary tumors were located in the stomach, and 1 case each originated in the small bowel, colon, and rectum. In 3 patients, the dedifferentiated component occurred in the setting of imatinib resistance, whereas the remaining 5 occurred de novo. The dedifferentiated component had an anaplastic appearance, including 1 angiosarcomatous phenotype, with high mitotic activity and necrosis, and showed complete loss of CD117 (8/8) and CD34 (5/8) expression and de novo expression of either cytokeratin (4/8) or desmin (1/8). There was no difference in the KIT genotype between the 2 components. However, 2 imatinib-resistant tumors showed coexistence of KIT exon 11 and exon 13 mutations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed loss of 1 KIT gene in 3 cases and low-level amplification of KIT in 2 other cases in the CD117-negative component, compared with the CD117-positive area. TP53 mutation was identified in 1/5 cases tested, being present in both components. In summary, dedifferentiation in GIST may occur either de novo or after chronic imatinib exposure and can represent a diagnostic pitfall. This phenomenon is not related to additional KIT mutations, but might be secondary to genetic instability, either represented by loss of heterozygosity or low level of KIT amplification. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Gronchi A.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori |
Colombo C.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori |
Le Pechoux C.,Institute Gustave Roussy |
Dei Tos A.P.,Treviso General Hospital |
And 14 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014
Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is a rare locally aggressive monoclonal proliferation of myofibroblasts lacking metastatic capacity. It may be observed in nearly every part of the body. Considering the variable clinical presentations, anatomic locations, and biologic behaviors, an individualized treatment approach is required. The pathogenesis of DF is not completely understood even if a high prevalence (∼85%) of CTNNB1 mutations discovered in sporadic DF underlies the importance of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. No established and evidence-based approach for the treatment of this neoplasm is available as of today. Considering the unpredictable behavior and the heterogeneity of this disease, we propose a treatment algorithm approved by the French and the Italian Sarcoma Group, based on a front-line wait and see approach and subsequent therapy in the case of progression. A careful counseling at a referral center is mandatory and should be offered to all patients affected by sporadic DF from the time of their diagnosis. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Mastrangelo G.,University of Padua |
Coindre J.-M.,Bergonie Institute |
Ducimetiere F.,University of Lyon |
Dei Tos A.P.,Treviso General Hospital |
And 11 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012
Background: The objectives of this study were to measure the incidence of sarcomas, including viscerally sited tumors that are not reported in cancer statistics, and to draw explanatory clues from a large and reliable sarcoma incidence data set. Methods: Cases of sarcomas regardless of primary site (except bone and joints) were collected during 2 years in 3 European regions totaling approximately 26,000,000 person-years. The sources used were pathology reports and hospital discharges forms. Diagnoses were reviewed by expert sarcoma pathologists and were classified according to 2002 World Health Organization criteria. Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) were considered those located in arms, legs, trunk, head, neck, and retroperitoneum; visceral sarcomas (VS) were considered those that arose in internal organs. Rates were age standardized using the European (ASR-E) and the USA standard population. The rate of coexistence of VS and STS was calculated by dividing the 2 corresponding ASRs. Results: There were 1558 sarcomas, 968 STS, and 590 VS. The ASRs-USA per 100,000 person-years was 5.12 × 105 among males and 4.58 × 105 among females for all sarcomas. For males and females, respectively, the ASR-E per 100,000 person-years was 3.58 × 105 and 2.55 × 105, respectively, for STS; 1.47 × 10 5 and 1.97 × 105, respectively, for VS; and 0.55 × 105 and 0.10 × 105, respectively, for Kaposi sarcoma. The coexistence rate of VS and STS was 0.41 for males and 0.77 for females. For dermatofibrosarcoma (both sexes), uterine sarcoma, liposarcoma (females), and leiomyosarcoma, including or excluding the uterus (females), the age-specific rates depicted a curve with a rapid increasing trend until ages 40 to 50 years and little variation thereafter. Conclusions: Compared with the incidence of STS, VS incidence made up an additional 41% in males and 77% in females. Because the shape of age-specific curves for some histotypes was similar to that of breast cancer, the authors concluded that sex hormones (plus many chemicals that act as endocrine disruptors) may be involved in carcinogenesis. This evidence could pave the way to investigate alternative treatments and to explore etiology. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.
Fedeli U.,Veneto Region |
Zorzi M.,Veneto Tumour Registry |
Urso E.D.L.,University of Padua |
Gennaro N.,Veneto Region |
And 3 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015
BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs based on the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) were found to reduce overall CRC surgery rates, but to the authors' knowledge data by subsite are lacking. The objective of the current study was to assess the impact of FIT-based screening on proximal and distal CRC surgical resection rates. METHODS The Veneto region in Italy can be subdivided into 3 areas with staggered introduction of FIT-based screening programs: early (2002-2004), intermediate (2005-2007), and late (2008-2009) areas. Time series of proximal and distal CRC surgery were investigated in the 3 populations between 2001 and 2012 by Joinpoint regression analysis and segmented Poisson regression models. RESULTS The impact of screening was similar in the study populations. Rates of distal CRC surgical resection were stable before screening, increased at the time of screening implementation (rate ratio [RR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.14-1.37), and thereafter declined by 10% annually (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.88-0.92). Rates of proximal CRC surgical resection increased by 4% annually before screening (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05) but, after a peak at the time of screening initiation, the trend was reversed. The percentage represented by proximal CRC surgery rose from 28% in 2001 to 41% in 2012. CONCLUSIONS In this natural multiple-baseline experiment, consistent findings across each time series demonstrated that FIT-based screening programs have an impact both on proximal and distal CRC surgery rates. However, underlying preexisting epidemiological trends are leading to a rapidly increasing percentage of proximal CRC. Cancer 2015;121:3982-3989. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Sanfilippo R.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale Tumori |
Dei Tos A.P.,Treviso General Hospital |
Casali P.G.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale Tumori
Current Opinion in Oncology | Year: 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCL) represents about 10% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Therapeutic options for this subgroup of tumours are limited, essentially doxorubicin-based regimens and trabectedin. Recently, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been identified as a therapeutic target in several sarcomas. MRCLs should be included among these, as various molecular aberrations of the mTOR pathway have been recently reported. RECENT FINDINGS: PI3KCA mutations were identified in 10-20% of MRCLs. Other molecular aberrations include loss of PTEN, Akt activation and overexpression of IGF1R. Recently, two minor responses to mTOR inhibitors were reported. SUMMARY: The relatively high frequency of mTOR signalling pathway alterations in MRCL provides a preclinical rationale for considering mTOR inhibition as a potential novel therapeutic strategy warranting further investigation. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dei Tos A.P.,Treviso General Hospital
Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2013
Soft tissue sarcomas represent an heterogenous group of malignancies. They represent a diagnostic challenge, and their accurate classification impact over treatment options. Sarcomas, similarly to hematologic neoplasm, often harbor relatively specific genetic aberrations, the recognition of which can be used to improved diagnostic accuracy. This review will focus on the clinical relevance of molecular analysis in soft tissue sarcomas, trying to elucidate its role as a diagnostic tool as well as a potential prognostic/predictive marker. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.