Traub S.,Trenzyme GmbH |
Stahl H.,Boehringer Ingelheim |
Rosenbrock H.,Boehringer Ingelheim |
Simon E.,Boehringer Ingelheim |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2017
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a central modulator of neuronal development and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. This renders the BDNF-modulated tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) a promising drug target to treat synaptic dysfunctions. Using GRowth factor-driven expansion and INhibition of NotCH (GRINCH) during maturation, the so-called GRINCH neurons were derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. These GRINCH neurons were used as model cells for pharmacologic profiling of two TrkB-agonistic antibodies, hereafter referred to as AB2 and AB20. In next-generation sequencing studies, AB2 and AB20 stimulated transcriptional changes, which extensively overlapped with BDNF-driven transcriptional modulation. In regard to TrkB phosphorylation, both AB2 and AB20 were only about half as efficacious as BDNF; however, with respect to the TrkB downstream signaling, AB2 and AB20 displayed increased efficacy values, providing a stimulation at least comparable to BDNF in respect to VGF transcription, as well as of AKT and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. In a complex structure of the TrkB-d5 domain with AB20, determined by X-ray crystallography, the AB20 binding site was found to be allosteric in regard to the BDNF binding site, whereas AB2 was known to act orthosterically with BDNF. In agreement with this finding, AB2 and AB20 acted synergistically at greater concentrations to drive TrkB phosphorylation. Although TrkB downstream signaling declined faster after pulse stimulation with AB20 than with AB2, AB20 restimulated TrkB phosphorylation more efficiently than AB2. In conclusion, both antibodies displayed some limitations and some benefits in regard to future applications as therapeutic agents. © Copyright 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Kuhnle S.,University of Konstanz |
Kogel U.,University of Konstanz |
Kogel U.,Philip Morris Research Laboratories GmbH |
Glockzin S.,University of Konstanz |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011
Deregulation of the ubiquitin-protein ligase E6AP contributes to the development of the Angelman syndrome and to cervical carcinogenesis suggesting that the activity of E6AP needs to be under tight control. However, how E6AP activity is regulated at the post-translational level under non-pathologic conditions is poorly understood. In this study, we report that the giant protein HERC2, which is like E6AP a member of the HECT family of ubiquitin-protein ligases, binds to E6AP. The interaction is mediated by the RCC1-like domain 2 of HERC2 and a region spanning amino acid residues 150-200 of E6AP. Furthermore, we provide evidence that HERC2 stimulates the ubiquitinprotein ligase activity of E6AP in vitro and within cells and that this stimulatory effect does not depend on the ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of HERC2. Thus, the data obtained indicate that HERC2 acts as a regulator of E6AP. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Martins C.P.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute |
Sie D.,Netherlands Cancer Institute |
De Ridder J.,Netherlands Cancer Institute |
De Ridder J.,Technical University of Delft |
And 12 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010
The cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p15, p16, p21, and p27 are frequently deleted, silenced, or downregulated in many malignancies. Inactivation of CDK inhibitors predisposes mice to tumor development, showing that these genes function as tumor suppressors. Here, we describe high-throughput murine leukemia virus insertional mutagenesis screens in mice that are deficient for one or two CDK inhibitors. We retrieved 9,117 retroviral insertions from 476 lymphomas to define hundreds of loci that are mutated more frequently than expected by chance. Many of these loci are skewed toward a specific genetic context of predisposing germline and somatic mutations. We also found associations between these loci with gender, age of tumor onset, and lymphocyte lineage (B or T cell). Comparison of retroviral insertion sites with single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed a significant overlap between the datasets. Together, our findings highlight the importance of genetic context within large-scale mutation detection studies, and they show a novel use for insertional mutagenesis data in prioritizing disease-associated genes that emerge from genome-wide association studies. ©2010 AACR.
Huang B.,Agresearch Ltd. |
Li T.,Agresearch Ltd. |
Li T.,Guangxi University |
Alonso-Gonzalez L.,University of Otago |
And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Authentic induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), capable of giving rise to all cell types of an adult animal, are currently only available in mouse. Here, we report the first generation of bovine iPSC-like cells following transfection with a novel virus-free poly-promoter vector. This vector contains the bovine cDNAs for OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, each controlled by its own independent promoter. Bovine fibroblasts were cultured without feeders in a chemically defined medium containing leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and inhibitors of MEK1/2 and glycogen synthase kinase-3 signaling ('2i'). Non-invasive real-time kinetic profiling revealed a different response of bovine vs human and mouse cells to culture in 2i/LIF. In bovine, 2i was necessary and sufficient to induce the appearance of tightly packed alkaline phosphatase-positive iPSC-like colonies. These colonies formed in the absence of DNA synthesis and did not expand after passaging. Following transfection, non-proliferative primary colonies expressed discriminatory markers of pluripotency, including endogenous iPSC factors, CDH1, DPPA3, NANOG, SOCS3, ZFP42, telomerase activity, Tra-1-60/81 and SSEA-3/4, but not SSEA-1. This indicates that they had initiated a self-sustaining pluripotency programme. Bovine iPSC-like cells maintained a normal karyotype and differentiated into derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. Our study demonstrates that conversion into induced pluripotency can occur in quiescent cells, following a previously undescribed route of direct cell reprogramming. This identifies a major species-specific barrier for generating iPSCs and provides a chemically defined screening platform for factors that induce proliferation and maintain pluripotency of embryo-derived pluripotent stem cells in livestock. © 2011 Huang et al.
Baumann B.,Trenzyme GmbH |
Lenz D.,Trenzyme GmbH
BioSpektrum | Year: 2014
Clonal cell lines stably expressing a target protein are a common tool in research, but the generation of such cell lines is laborious and time-consuming. In contrast, the novel ExoIN technology guarantees easy-to-handle and fast cell line generation. By expressing selection marker and target as a polyprotein that is efficiently cleaved at the ribosome, unmodified free protein is homogeneously expressed in all cells of the stable cell population. © Springer-Verlag 2014.