Peterborough, Canada
Peterborough, Canada

Trent University is a liberal arts and science-oriented institution located along the Otonabee River in Peterborough and Durham, Ontario, Canada.The enabling legislation is the Trent University Act, 1962-63. The university was founded through the efforts of a citizens' committee interested in creating a university to serve the Trent valley. The chancellor of Trent University is Don Tapscott, and Dr. Leo Groarke is the president and vice-chancellor.The Symons campus of Trent is approximately 5.6 km2 , over half of which is a part of Trent's Nature Areas, an ecologically diverse wild-life preserve. It is divided into a series of colleges: Champlain, Lady Eaton, Catharine Parr Traill, Otonabee, Peter Gzowski, and Julian Blackburn. Each college has its own residence hall, dining room, and student government, other than Julian Blackburn which is a non-residential college and home to Trent's 1,700 part-time students. The campus plan and the original college buildings were designed by the Canadian architect Ron Thom. A large portion of the main campus consists of land that was donated by General Electric Canada. This donation included a functioning hydroelectric power plant dating from the 1890s, which still generates a substantial portion of the university's electricity; the power plant is being updated and a second generating plant being considered.Trent also runs a full- and part-time program in Durham at the Thornton Road campus, with an enrolment of over 800 students. The university is represented in Canadian Interuniversity Sport by the Trent Excalibur. Some of the specialized programs at Trent include the Queen's University/Trent concurrent education program, the Trent University School of Education, a joint program with Fleming College allowing students to earn a B.Sc.F.S. in Forensic Science, and a B.Sc.N. program in Nursing. Wikipedia.

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Trent University | Date: 2016-11-16

The disclosure generally provides branched diester compounds having exceptional low-temperature and flow properties. The disclosure also provides uses of the branched diester compounds in lubricant compositions, for example, as a base oil, and in other applications where their low-temperature and flow properties can be employed beneficially. The disclosure also provides efficient and green methods for making the branched diester compounds. In certain embodiments, a vegetable oil-based diester (1,6-hexyldioleate) was branched with propanoic acid (C3) using a green synthetic approach involving solvent-free and catalyst-free epoxide ring opening followed by in situ normal esterification. A total of three branched ester derivatives possessing varied numbers of internal protruding branched ester groups and hydroxyl groups were obtained. All of the pure branched derivatives were comprised of mixtures of positional isomers and/or stereoisomers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that regardless of the composition inhomogeneity of each branched derivative, crystallization was suppressed completely in all of the branched compounds, and they all demonstrated glass transitions below 65 C. Without being bound by any theory, it is believed that this unique thermal behavior is attributed to the internal protruding branched moieties and hydroxyl groups, which dramatically slowed down mass transfer starting with the least branched compound (2-branched derivative). The viscosity of the branched compounds was one order of magnitude larger than that of the starting di ester due to the increased branching and increased resistance to flow associated with hydrogen bonding introduced by the OH groups. Overall, these branched diesters demonstrated superior low temperature and flow properties comparable to existing non-sustainable commercial lubricants and analogous biobased materials which makes them suitable alternatives for use in lubricant formulations particularly in high performance industrial gear and bearing lubricants.

The disclosure generally provides high-molecular-weight thermoplastic polyester-based urethanes (TPEUs). In some embodiments, the component monomers of the TPEUs are entirely derived from renewable sources. The disclosure also provides methods of making high-molecular-weight TPEUs, and, in particular, methods for achieving such high molecular weights. The disclosure also provides certain uses of such TPEUs. Entirely lipid-derived segmented thermoplastic TPEU elastomers with rubber-like properties such as low modulus and high elongation were produced by incorporating 1,9-nonanediol (ND) as chain extender with oleic acid derived polyester diols (PEDs) and 1,7-heptamethylene diisocyanate (HPMDI). Enhanced elastomeric properties were achieved by optimizing hydrogen bond density and phase separation of the TPEU via customized polymerization protocols. The novel TPEUs showed extensive degradation under hydrothermal ageing in water at 80 C. and achieved a tensile half-life in one day of immersion. For the first time, entirely lipid-derived TPEU elastomers with thermal and mechanical properties comparable to commercially available petroleum-based analogues and a controlled life-cycle were achieved, demonstrating the viability of potential alternatives to petroleum-derived elastomers and credible potential in biomedical applications especially as bio-resorbable implants or tissue scaffolds.

The disclosure generally provides high-molecular-weight thermoplastic polyester-based urethanes (TPEUs). In some embodiments, the component monomers of the TPEUs are entirely derived from renewable sources. The disclosure also provides methods of making high-molecular-weight TPEUs, and, in particular, methods for achieving such high molecular weights. The disclosure also provides certain uses of such TPEUs. High molecular weight, semi-crystalline TPEU elastomers were synthesized from polyester diols (PEDs) and 1,7 heptamethylene diisocyanate (HPMDI) both derived from oleic acid. Functional group stoichiometry and polymerization time were used as tools to control molecular weight and optimize the thermal and mechanical properties of the TPEU. A targeted range of PEDs with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersity indices were obtained in high yields using an induced stoichiometric imbalance method. The PEDs were reacted with HPMDI with different NCO:OH ratios (1.1 to 2.1) and polymerization times (2 to 24 hours) in order to obtain high molecular weight TPEUs. Solvent-resistant TPEUs, displaying polyethylene-like behavior with controlled polyester and urethane segment phase separation were obtained and characterized by FTIR, ^(1)H-NMR, GPC, DSC, TGA and tensile tests in order to reveal the structure-property relationships. Melting and glass transition temperatures, tensile strength and maximum strain increased with molecular weight approaching saturation values, demonstrating a plateau effect of molecular weight on physical properties. The novel TPEUs showed extensive degradation under hydrothermal ageing in water at 80 C. and achieved a tensile half-life in one day of immersion. The entirely lipid-derived TPEUs exhibited thermal and mechanical properties comparable to commercially available entirely petroleum-based analogues.

This present disclosure relates to biodiesel compositions comprising polymeric pour point depressants, and crystallization modifiers, to improve cold flow properties for biodiesel fuels.

Trent University | Date: 2016-10-28

This application relates to the polymorphism and microstructure of certain triacylglycerols and fatty acid methyl esters, including 1,2-dioleoyl-3-stearoyl glycerol and methyl stearate, and how the properties of these individual components in a biodiesel fuel, as well as their combined mixtures, helps understand the fundamental mechanisms of their crystallization so as to design biodiesel fuels with improved low temperature characteristics.

Fogel S.M.,University of Montréal | Smith C.T.,Trent University
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2011

Until recently, the electrophysiological mechanisms involved in strengthening new memories into a more permanent form during sleep have been largely unknown. The sleep spindle is an event in the electroencephalogram (EEG) characterizing Stage 2 sleep. Sleep spindles may reflect, at the electrophysiological level, an ideal mechanism for inducing long-term synaptic changes in the neocortex. Recent evidence suggests the spindle is highly correlated with tests of intellectual ability (e.g.; IQ tests) and may serve as a physiological index of intelligence. Further, spindles increase in number and duration in sleep following new learning and are correlated with performance improvements. Spindle density and sigma (14-16. Hz) spectral power have been found to be positively correlated with performance following a daytime nap, and animal studies suggest the spindle is involved in a hippocampal-neocortical dialogue necessary for memory consolidation. The findings reviewed here collectively provide a compelling body of evidence that the function of the sleep spindle is related to intellectual ability and memory consolidation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sutherland R.J.,University of Lethbridge | Lehmann H.,Trent University
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2011

We discuss very recent experiments with rodents addressing the idea that long-term memories initially depending on the hippocampus, over a prolonged period, become independent of it. No unambiguous recent evidence exists to substantiate that this occurs. Most experiments find that recent and remote memories are equally affected by hippocampus damage. Nearly all experiments that report spared remote memories suffer from two problems: retrieval could be based upon substantial regions of spared hippocampus and recent memory is tested at intervals that are of the same order of magnitude as cellular consolidation. Accordingly, we point the way beyond systems consolidation theories, both the Standard Model of Consolidation and the Multiple Trace Theory, and propose a simpler multiple storage site hypothesis. On this view, with event reiterations, different memory representations are independently established in multiple networks. Many detailed memories always depend on the hippocampus; the others may be established and maintained independently. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Trent University | Date: 2016-05-18

This invention relates to base ester compounds and complex ester compounds that can be used as a base stock for lubricant applications or a base stock blend component for use in a finished lubricant or for particular applications, and methods of making the same. The base ester compounds and complex esters described herein comprise dimer and/or trimer esters, and their respective branched derivatives.

Polyols derived from palm oil fractions of metathesized triacylglycerols, and their related physical properties are disclosed. Such metathesized triacylglycerol polyols are also used as a component of polyurethane applications, including polyurethane foams.

Metathesized triacylglycerol polyols, fractionated polyol variants thereof, and their related physical and thermal properties are disclosed.

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