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Mortel W.J.,Trelleborg IAVS
Constitutive Models for Rubber VIII - Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Constitutive Models for Rubbers, ECCMR 2013 | Year: 2013

In an ideal world the Customer issues a product specification which can then be designed and manufactured. Validation of the design probably includes use of various forms of numerical analysis by both the customer and the supplier. This paper considers the complexity of harmonising the goals between the Customer-with his specification variables, the Designer-with his product design variables, and the Manufacturer-with his process variables. Case studies are considered, where Finite Element Analysis has been used as the validation tool with different aspects of complexity. Not least the choice of constitutive model which provides the correct evaluation. With everyone within the supply chain theoretically having the same objectives, the presentation attempts to illustrate the interactions which can have different benefits, and understanding, of the product performance by those parties. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group. Source


Luo R.K.,Central South University | Peng L.M.,Central South University | Wu X.P.,Central South University | Mortel W.J.,Trelleborg IAVS
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit | Year: 2012

Rubber suspensions are important components in railway vehicles. The offset sandwich mount is a type of rubber spring used on rail vehicles as the primary suspension above the axlebox on a bogie. In this installation, a pair of mounts is arranged within a vee configuration, such that the movements in all planes are controlled by a combined shear and compression displacement. This article evaluates the important aspects in the rubber suspension design when using a higher order material properties in an extreme large deformation. On one hand, using a higher order of material model has enabled prediction of larger deformations that are required for the actual product in the ultimate loading used in rail dynamic environment. On the other hand, using a higher order of material model with full integration elements, however, may mislead the design concept to an incorrect direction. It is important to note that the accuracy of the stress calculation is not guaranteed by a reasonable load-deflection prediction, even validated against a test result. Three methods to check the reliability of the calculated stresses are proposed. The investigation has been validated against a laboratory test. It is suggested that a higher order of material model should be used with reduced integration elements. © Authors 2011. Source


Luo R.K.,Central South University | Mortel W.J.,Trelleborg IAVS | Wu X.,Central South University | Peng L.M.,Central South University
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit | Year: 2016

In the rail industry, the important design parameters of rubber suspension systems are currently solely based on the loading part of the loading/unloading history, e.g. the load-deflection characteristics and fatigue requirement. Different energy levels and stress values are created for an identical load value during loading and unloading cycles in rubber-like materials. Hence, the performance of a rubber suspension can be substantially different during loading and unloading, which can lead to unexpected effects. An engineering approach is proposed to account for this so-called Mullins effect. Existing elastomeric models, widely used in rail vehicle design, can be modified to account for the unloading using this methodology. A typical rubber-to-metal bonded component, which is used in rail suspension systems, is selected for a verification study. It is shown that the predictions from the new approach are consistent with the results of the whole load/deflection history obtained in a laboratory experiment. In addition, if the unloading characteristics are not considered, results obtained from stress calculations can have a 20% margin of error. The proposed approach should be further verified using other types of rubber suspension systems. © 2014 Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Source


Luo R.K.,Trelleborg IAVS
Polymer Testing | Year: 2016

There is very limited literature regarding impact analysis on solid rubber anti-vibration systems as the true damping characteristics of rubber materials are very complex and difficult to define. Viscoelastic approach is a usual method and has only achieved limited success. In this article, an integrated quasi-static and impact analysis with validation on an anti-vibration mount is presented. The Rayleigh damping has been introduced for rubber hysteresis. The impact responses from both simulation and experiment have been compared and have shown very good agreement in real time domain. In addition, it has been revealed that real geometry and elasticity of an impact object have to be included in simulation in order to obtain an accurate response. It has been shown that the proposed approach is reliable and can be used for an appropriate design stage to evaluate an impact/dynamic response of rubber anti-vibration systems. The key points to use this approach are also provided. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Luo R.K.,Trelleborg IAVS | Wu X.,Central South University | Mortel W.J.,Trelleborg IAVS
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit | Year: 2013

Rail vehicles operate in highly complex dynamic environments. Rubber-to-metal bonded springs are used as both primary and secondary suspensions as well as engine installations in order to minimize vibration levels. The effect of rubber hysteresis is usually studied using viscoelastic models; however, this paper proposes an approach in which Rayleigh damping coefficients are introduced to model the rubber hysteresis. Simulations of the dynamic response of a rectangular rubber spring are performed and it is found that the natural frequencies of the rubber suspensions and engine installations on a railway vehicle show little change under both the tare and loaded conditions in service. The steady state dynamic response to a harmonic input in the frequency range between 1 and 1000 Hz is calculated and subsequently validated against experimental results. In addition the effect of a sudden impact, created by track irregularities, on the rubber suspension and engine installation is analysed. The proposed methodology may be used to guide the design of the rubber structures used in railway vehicles. © IMechE 2012. Source

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