Unno H.,University of Tsukuba |
Tabuchi N.,Trek Inc. |
Kobayashi N.,Tokyo University of Information Sciences
Mathematical Structures in Computer Science | Year: 2014
We propose a new method to verify that a higher-order, tree-processing functional program conforms to an input/output specification. Our method reduces the verification problem to multiple verification problems for higher-order multi-tree transducers, which are then transformed into higher-order recursion schemes and model-checked. Unlike previous methods, our new method can deal with arbitrary higher-order functional programs manipulating algebraic data structures, as long as certain invariants on intermediate data structures are provided by a programmer. We have proved the soundness of the method and implemented a prototype verifier. © Cambridge University Press 2014.
Noras M.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte |
Pandey A.,Trek Inc.
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine | Year: 2010
The Kelvin probe technique is a noncontacting method for the quantitative evaluation of an electric field, surface potential, and surface charge distribution. This technique became important and widely used because, unlike contacting methods, it does not change the physical state of the object under test. Lack of contact with the measured object assures that there is no charge transfer between the meter and the tested surface. Even though new, improved contacting methods are being introduced by instrumentation manufacturers, noncontacting methods still dominate in the applications where very high input impedance of the instrument is needed. This article investigates the uses and limitations of Kelvin probe-based instruments for surface charge density measurements of dielectric materials. © 2006 IEEE.
Trek Inc. | Date: 2012-10-03
A method and a system for positioning a sensor of an electrostatic force microscope is disclosed. In a method according to the invention, the AC bias voltage and DC bias voltage systems of the EFM are utilized to determine a sensor sensitivity G, which is then used to adjust the position of the sensor or the AC bias voltage in a manner that reduces the risk of arcing and/or contact between the sensor and the surface to be analyzed.