Improvement of the baking of food products in industrial ovens. Heat flux measurement and characterization methods for the change of scale [Optimisation de la cuisson de produits alimentaires en four tunnel industriel: Mesure des flux thermiques et méthodes de caractérisation pour le changement déchelles]
Sommier A.,TREFLE ENSAM |
Anguy Y.,TREFLE ENSAM |
Dumoulin E.,Agro ParisTech |
Rojas J.,Marie Groupe LDC |
Vignolle M.,Marie Groupe LDC
Instrumentation Mesure Metrologie | Year: 2011
The quality and sensory attributes of baked cereal products are linked to the heat flux received by the product during baking. Relying on commercial sensors lying on the conveyor belt amongst the products, we measure the radiative and convective heat fluxes in the industrial oven. We show that reproducing these fluxes in a small-sized pilot leads to products with similar colour and mass loss to those in the industrial oven. This change of scale (down-scaling) means that baking conditions in the pilot can be optimized with respect to the product properties and the optimized baking cycle can then be replicated in the industrial oven (up-scaling). In order to validate this approach suitable tools are required to quantify the product properties. We highlight the use of image analysis to quantify macroscopic properties (e.g. colour) and microscopic properties such as the size distribution of 3D air cells in the bread upon which sensory and mechanical properties depend. © 2011 Lavoisier, Paris.
Haugen A.,University of Bergen |
Ferno M.A.,University of Bergen |
Graue A.,University of Bergen |
Bertin H.J.,TREFLE ENSAM
Proceedings - SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery | Year: 2010
The use of foam to increase oil recovery by reducing the gas mobility during gas injection in heterogeneous reservoirs wifh permeability variations is a proven EOR technology. The use of foam for fracture permeability reduction in fractured reservoirs is less studied. In this work laboratory experiments using foam to reduce fracture transmissivity and improve the matrix sweep in highly fractured, low permeable, oil-wet limestone are reported. Oil recovery either by individual water-, surfactant-, or gas injection exhibited low recovery, less than 10%OIP, with oil recovered predominately from the fractures. Oil recovery was significantly improved by simultaneous injection of surfactant and gas to generate foam in the fracture network and thus divert flow to the oil saturated matrix. Two foam injection schemes were tested: 1) co-injection of surfactant and gas in the fracture for in-situ foam generation, and 2) pre-generated foam injection. In-situ foam generation in the smooth-walled fractures was weak and not sufficient to divert fluids from the fractures and into the matrix. Injection of stable, pre-generated foam caused an increase in the differential pressure and diverted fluid to the matrix, yielding a significant increase in oil recovery, 80% OIP was receverd at high pore volumes injected. Copyright 2010, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Pailhes J.,TREFLE ENSAM |
Sallaou M.,TREFLE ENSAM |
Nadeau J.-P.,TREFLE ENSAM |
Fadel G.M.,Clemson University
Journal of Mechanical Design, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2011
This paper presents an energy based approach to functional decomposition that is applicable to the top down design (system to subsystems to components) of mechanical systems. The paper shows that the main functions of convert and transmit are sufficient to focus on the functional flow or main energy flow resulting in the specific action sought as a result of the artifact being designed, and can be expanded upon at the lowest level when looking for specific solutions based upon the energy and mass balances and the knowledge within the design team. This approach considers function as a transformation and also fits the approach presented in TRIZ. The standard energy, material, and signal flows are seen as forms of energy flows, and it is only their transformation and transmission that is sought. This simplified approach, coupled with an aspect of control and interaction between a reference state and the artifact or between various components is sufficient to comprehensively describe the system that matches very nicely the value function approach of Miles. Furthermore, as these interactions can be considered as artifact-artifact affordances when considering the artifact for either artifact interaction or within an environment, its relation to the user and to the reference state can be addressed during the design phase, in addition to the functions. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.