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Wang H.H.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Tang R.J.,University of California at Berkeley | Liu H.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Chen H.Y.,Qingdao Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Tree Physiology | Year: 2013

NAC domain transcription factors are important regulators that activate the secondary wall biosynthesis in wood formation. In this work, we investigated the possible functions of an NAC family member SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN2 (PtSND2) using chimeric repressor silencing technology. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, subcellular localization and transcriptional activation analyses indicated that PtSND2 is a wood-associated transcriptional factor with the predicted transcriptional activation activity, which could be inhibited by the repression domain SUPERMAN REPRESSION DOMAIN X (SRDX) in yeast. Wood formation was severely repressed in transgenic poplar plants overexpressing PtSND2-SRDX. Meanwhile, the secondary cell wall thickness of xylem fibers was restrained, and the contents of cellulose and lignin were obviously decreased in the stems of transgenic plants. Further studies indicated that expressions of a number of wood-associated genes were down-regulated in the stems of transgenic plants. Our results suggest that PtSND2 may play important roles during the secondary growth of stems in poplar. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Wang H.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Tang R.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Tang R.,University of California at Berkeley | Wang C.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | And 5 more authors.
Tree Physiology | Year: 2015

Using chimeric repressor silencing technology, we previously reported that functional repression of PtSND2 severely arrested wood formation in transgenic poplar (Populus). Here, we provide further evidence that auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling were disturbed in these transgenic plants, leading to pleiotropic defects in their growth patterns, including inhibited leaf enlargement and vascular tissue development in the leaf central vein, suppressed cambial growth and fiber elongation in the stem, and arrested growth in the root system. Two transgenic lines, which displayed the most remarkable phenotypic deviation from the wild-type, were selected for detailed studies. In both transgenic lines, expression of genes for auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling was down-regulated, and indole-3-acetic acid distribution was severely disturbed in the apical buds, leaves, stems and roots of field-grown transgenic plants. Transient transcription dual-luciferase assays of ProPtTYDC2::LUC, ProPttLAX2::LUC and ProPoptrIAA20.2::LUC in poplar protoplasts revealed that expression of auxin-related genes might be regulated by PtSND2 at the transcriptional level. All these results indicate that functional repression of PtSND2 altered auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling, and thereby disturbed the normal growth and development of transgenic plants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Song H.,Beijing Forestry University | Song H.,National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding | Song H.,Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants | Song H.,Tree and Ornamental Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Laboratory | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2011

Telomeres have lately received considerable attention in the development of broad-leaved tree species. In order to determine tissue-, sex-, season- and age-specific changes in telomerase activity in ginkgo trees, analyses of the telomerase repeat amplification protocol were carried out. In all of the tissues detected (embryonal callus, microspore tissues and leaves) telomerase activity was found, with differences between these activities statistically significant (P < 0.05). The highest telomerase activity was found in embryonal callus, suggesting that ginkgo trees have tissue-specific telomerase activity. Tissues containing high levels of dividing cells also have high levels of telomerase activity. No significant difference of telomerase activity was found between male and female trees (P > 0.05). In the annual development cycle, the highest telomerase activity was found in April and a decreasing trend over time in the four age groups studied: 10, 20, 70 and 700 year. The most obvious decline appeared in trees of the 700 year old group, suggesting that ginkgo trees have season-specific telomerase activities and trees of various ages react differently to seasonal changes. The mean annual telomerase activity showed a regular decreasing trend in all leaf samples analyzed from 10 to 700 year old ginkgo trees. We conclude that maintenance of telomere length depends on season- and age- associated telomerase activity. An optimal telomere length is regulated and maintained by telomerase in Ginkgo biloba L. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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