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Peles E.,Tel Aviv University | Schreiber S.,Tel Aviv University | Linzy S.,Treatment and Research | Adelson M.,Tel Aviv University | Adelson M.,Treatment and Research
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry | Year: 2010

Lifetime potential and probable pathological gambling (PG) were assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) questionnaire. The prevalence between patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Tel Aviv (Israel, gambling is illegal) and MMT patients in Las Vegas (NV, USA, gambling is legal) was compared. Urine toxicology and substance use was assessed as well. PG at MMT admission was higher in Tel Aviv (48/178, 27%) than in Las Vegas (19/113, 16.8%; p = .05). In Tel Aviv gambling mostly preceded opiate abuse (58.3%), while it followed opiate abuse in Las Vegas (66.7%, p < .001). Only 20.8% in Tel Aviv and 21.1% in Las Vegas were currently gambling. Multivariate analyses found older age on admission to MMT odds ratio (OR) = 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.08), being male OR = 2.6 (95% CI 1.3-5.3) and being from the Tel Aviv MMT clinic OR = 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.9) to characterize PG. Detection of any drug in MMT admission urine specimens was unrelated to PG. Older age on admission to MMT, and male gender characterized PG in different MMT clinics, independent of the legal status of gambling. Low current PG rates for patients in both MMT clinics suggest that legality may not be relevant. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

Peles E.,Treatment and Research | Schreiber S.,Treatment and Research | Schreiber S.,Tel Aviv University | Adelson M.,Treatment and Research
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2010

We have extended our previous 10-year follow-up study of MMT retention for another 5 years and added data on survival of all patients ever admitted to our MMT clinic (6/1993 to 6/2007). Data were calculated from admission to MMT until leaving, death, or study closure (6/2008). Ninety-four of a total of 613 patients (4711.6 person-years [py]) died. Cancer was the primary cause of death for those who remained in treatment, and overdose for those who left MMT. Longer survival (p=0.051) with a trend for a lower mortality rate (p=0.08) was noted among the 464 patients who stayed in treatment ≥1 year (1.8/100 py), compared with the 149 patients who left MMT <1 year (2.6/100 py). Predictors of survival in multivariate analyses were younger age (<40 years) at admission, living with a spouse/partner, being hepatitis B sera-negative, not abusing benzodiazepines on admission (interaction effect), not being referred directly from hospitalization to MMT, and not leaving the MMT program for hospitalization. The two latter variables also predicted longer retention, as did a high methadone dose (≥100 mg/d), no opiate and, no benzodiazepine abuse after 1 year and either having any DSM-IV-TR Axis I, or no Axis I&II psychiatric diagnoses. Unlike retention, mortality was associated with pre-treatment severity and comorbidities thus only partially reflects MMT outcome (opiate abstinence and treatment success). Benzodiazepine abuse reduced both retention and survival, emphasizing the high priority that should be given to stopping it. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Levran O.,Rockefeller University | Randesi M.,Rockefeller University | Li Y.,Shanxi University of Finance and Economics | Rotrosen J.,New York University | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Stress is a significant risk factor in the development of drug addictions and in addiction relapse susceptibility. This hypothesis-driven study was designed to determine if specific SNPs in genes related to stress response are associated with heroin and/or cocaine addiction in African Americans. The analysis included 27 genes (124 SNPs) and was performed independently for each addiction. The sample consisted of former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (n = 314), cocaine addicts (n = 281), and controls (n = 208). Fourteen SNPs showed nominally significant association with heroin addiction (p < 0.05), including the African-specific, missense SNP rs5376 (Asn334Ser) in the galanin receptor type 1 gene (GALR1) and the functional FKBP5 intronic SNP rs1360780. Thirteen SNPs showed association with cocaine addiction, including the synonymous SNPs rs237902, in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), and rs5374 in GALR1. No signal remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Four additional SNPs (GALR1 rs2717162, AVP rs2282018, CRHBP rs1875999, and NR3C2 rs1040288) were associated with both addictions and may indicate common liability. The study provides preliminary evidence for novel association of variants in several stress-related genes with heroin and/or cocaine addictions and may enhance the understanding of the interaction between stress and addictions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

Peles E.,Treatment and Research | Peles E.,Tel Aviv University | Schreiber S.,Treatment and Research | Schreiber S.,Tel Aviv University | Adelson M.,Treatment and Research
Substance Abuse | Year: 2014

Background: The objective was to study substance abuse, infectious disease, and patient outcomes (retention and substance abuse abstinence) over 2 decades in a large methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) facility within a tertiary-referral medical center.Methods: Prevalence of substance abuse was determined monthly between 1993 (35 patients) and 2013 (350 patients) based on observed random urine tests. On entry, patients were tested for hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. One-year retention and substance abuse abstinence were calculated. Results: At admission, mean age and rate of cocaine and benzodiazepines abuse increased over the years, with no change in the prevalence of hepatitis C (50%) and HIV (<10%). Retention rate increased (P =.008) (range: 42.9%-92.4%; overall: 76.2%) and opiate abstinence also increased (P =.006) (range: 49.1%-85.7%; overall: 68.1%), reflecting outcome improvement over the years.Conclusions: Outcome improvement could be attributed to the staff's growing experience and improvements in treatment but also to changes in patient characteristics over the past 2 decades. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Ronel N.,Bar - Ilan University | Gueta K.,Bar - Ilan University | Abramsohn Y.,Treatment and Research | Caspi N.,Treatment and Research | Adelson M.,Treatment and Research
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology | Year: 2011

Three consecutive, professionally led (as opposed to self-help) groups following the 12-step program (TSP) were integrated into a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program that included 32 heroin-addicted individuals in recovery. This report describes our experience in meeting the challenges that arose and our conclusions regarding the therapeutic potential of this integration. A professional therapeutic staff guided the groups. In-depth interviews of 10 participants and the reflections of the group leaders provided data for learning about the groups' experience. Initially the participants rejected the concepts of Step 1, powerlessness and unmanageability of life. The assimilation of Step 4 (defining character defect) also aroused some resistance. The participants eventually adopted the pragmatic aspects of TSP, including its terminology. The establishment of a common language of recovery helped to create group coherence and a sense of belonging, and helped to meet the needs of those who felt stigmatized by both the nonaddicted and addicted population undergoing nonmethadone recovery. TSP could be adapted to various aspects of daily life, produced a sense of self-efficacy, and stimulated motivation for change. Therapeutic implications are discussed. © SAGE Publications 2011.

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