Treatable Intellectual Disability Endeavour in British Columbia

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Treatable Intellectual Disability Endeavour in British Columbia

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Armstrong L.,Treatable Intellectual Disability Endeavour in British Columbia | Armstrong L.,Bc Childrens And Womens Hospital | Armstrong L.,University of British Columbia | Biancheri R.,Instituto G Gaslini | And 20 more authors.
Neurogenetics | Year: 2014

We report the second family with AIMP1 deficiency, due to a homozygous truncating AIMP1 (g.107248613 C>T) mutation. This female showed early-onset developmental arrest, intractable epileptic spasms, microcephaly, and a rapid clinical course leading to premature death, associated with cerebral atrophy and myelin deficiency on brain MRI. Clinical and neuroimaging findings are consistent with a primary neuronal degenerative disorder, rather than with the previously reported Perlizaeus-Merzbacher-like phenotype. Given its critical role in neurofilament assembly 16, impaired myelin formation is due to neuronal/axonal dysfunction. We propose that AIMP1 deficiency be added to the differential diagnosis of infantile onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Tarailo-Graovac M.,Molecular Therapeutics | Tarailo-Graovac M.,University of British Columbia | Sinclair G.,Treatable Intellectual Disability Endeavour in British Columbia | Sinclair G.,BC Childrens Hospital | And 27 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Phosphatidylinositol glycan biosynthesis class A protein (PIGA) is one of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor proteins, which function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Until recently, only somatic PIGA mutations had been reported in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), while germline mutations had not been observed, and were suspected to result in lethality. However, in just two years, whole exome sequencing (WES) analyses have identified germline PIGA mutations in male patients with XLIDD (X-linked intellectual developmental disorder) with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Methods and results: Here, we report on a new missense PIGA germline mutation [g.15342986C>T (p.S330N)] identified via WES followed by Sanger sequencing, in a Chinese male infant presenting with developmental arrest, infantile spasms, a pattern of lesion distribution on brain MRI resembling that typical of maple syrup urine disease, contractures, dysmorphism, elevated alkaline phosphatase, mixed hearing loss (a combination of conductive and sensorineural), liver dysfunction, mitochondrial complex I and V deficiency, and therapy-responsive dyslipidemia with confirmed lipoprotein lipase deficiency. X-inactivation studies showed skewing in the clinically unaffected carrier mother, and CD109 surface expression in patient fibroblasts was 57% of that measured in controls; together these data support pathogenicity of this mutation. Furthermore, we review all reported germline PIGA mutations (1 nonsense, 1 frameshift, 1 in-frame deletion, five missense) in 8 unrelated families. Conclusions: Our case further delineates the heterogeneous phenotype of this condition for which we propose the term 'PIGA deficiency'. While the phenotypic spectrum is wide, it could be classified into two types (severe and less severe) with shared hallmarks of infantile spasms with hypsarrhythmia on EEG and profound XLIDD. In severe PIGA deficiency, as described in our patient, patients also present with dysmorphic facial features, multiple CNS abnormalities, such as thin corpus callosum and delayed myelination, as well as hypotonia and elevated alkaline phosphatase along with liver, renal, and cardiac involvement; its course is often fatal. The less severe form of PIGA deficiency does not involve facial dysmorphism and multiple CNS abnormalities; instead, patients present with milder IDD, treatable seizures and generally a longer lifespan. © 2015 Tarailo-Graovac et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Sayson B.,BC Childrens Hospital | Sayson B.,University of British Columbia | Popurs M.A.M.,BC Childrens Hospital | Lafek M.,BC Childrens Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Background: Intellectual developmental disorders (IDD. 11Abbreviations:Intellectual developmental disorders (IDD)Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEM)Treatable Intellectual Disability Endeavour (TIDE)Whole Exome Sequencing (WES).), characterized by a significant impairment in cognitive function and behavior, affect 2.5% of the population and are associated with considerable morbidity and healthcare costs. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) currently constitute the largest group of genetic defects presenting with IDD, which are amenable to causal therapy. Recently, we created an evidence-based 2-tiered diagnostic protocol (TIDE protocol); the first tier is a 'screening step' applied in all patients, comprising routinely performed, wide available metabolic tests in blood and urine, while second-tier tests are more specific and based on the patient's phenotype. The protocol is supported by an app (. www.treatable-ID.org). Objective: To retrospectively examine the cost- and time-effectiveness of the TIDE protocol in patients identified with a treatable IEM at the British Columbia Children's Hospital. Methods: We searched the database for all IDD patients diagnosed with a treatable IEM, during the period 2000-2009 in our academic institution. Data regarding the patient's clinical phenotype, IEM, diagnostic tests and interval were collected. Total costs and time intervals associated with all testing and physician consultations actually performed were calculated and compared to the model of the TIDE protocol. Results: Thirty-one patients (16 males) were diagnosed with treatable IDD during the period 2000-2009. For those identifiable via the 1st tier (. n=. 20), the average cost savings would have been $311.17 CAD, and for those diagnosed via a second-tier test (. n=. 11) $340.14 CAD. Significant diagnostic delay (mean 9. months; range 1-29 months) could have been avoided in 9 patients with first-tier diagnoses, had the TIDE protocol been used. For those with second-tier treatable IDD, diagnoses could have been more rapidly achieved with the use of the Treatable IDD app allowing for specific searches based on signs and symptoms. Conclusion: The TIDE protocol for treatable forms of IDD appears effective reducing diagnostic delay and unnecessary costs. Larger prospective studies, currently underway, are needed to prove that standard screening for treatable conditions in patients with IDD is time- and cost-effective, and most importantly will preserve brain function by timely diagnosis enabling initiation of causal therapy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc..


PubMed | University of British Columbia, BC Childrens Hospital and Treatable Intellectual Disability Endeavour in British Columbia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular genetics and metabolism | Year: 2015

Intellectual developmental disorders (IDD(1)), characterized by a significant impairment in cognitive function and behavior, affect 2.5% of the population and are associated with considerable morbidity and healthcare costs. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) currently constitute the largest group of genetic defects presenting with IDD, which are amenable to causal therapy. Recently, we created an evidence-based 2-tiered diagnostic protocol (TIDE protocol); the first tier is a screening step applied in all patients, comprising routinely performed, wide available metabolic tests in blood and urine, while second-tier tests are more specific and based on the patients phenotype. The protocol is supported by an app (www.treatable-ID.org).To retrospectively examine the cost- and time-effectiveness of the TIDE protocol in patients identified with a treatable IEM at the British Columbia Childrens Hospital.We searched the database for all IDD patients diagnosed with a treatable IEM, during the period 2000-2009 in our academic institution. Data regarding the patients clinical phenotype, IEM, diagnostic tests and interval were collected. Total costs and time intervals associated with all testing and physician consultations actually performed were calculated and compared to the model of the TIDE protocol.Thirty-one patients (16 males) were diagnosed with treatable IDD during the period 2000-2009. For those identifiable via the 1st tier (n=20), the average cost savings would have been $311.17 CAD, and for those diagnosed via a second-tier test (n=11) $340.14 CAD. Significant diagnostic delay (mean 9 months; range 1-29 months) could have been avoided in 9 patients with first-tier diagnoses, had the TIDE protocol been used. For those with second-tier treatable IDD, diagnoses could have been more rapidly achieved with the use of the Treatable IDD app allowing for specific searches based on signs and symptoms.The TIDE protocol for treatable forms of IDD appears effective reducing diagnostic delay and unnecessary costs. Larger prospective studies, currently underway, are needed to prove that standard screening for treatable conditions in patients with IDD is time- and cost-effective, and most importantly will preserve brain function by timely diagnosis enabling initiation of causal therapy.


PubMed | University of British Columbia, Childrens Hospital Oxford, Treatable Intellectual Disability Endeavour in British Columbia, Instituto Giannina Gaslini and Molecular Therapeutics
Type: | Journal: Orphanet journal of rare diseases | Year: 2015

Phosphatidylinositol glycan biosynthesis class A protein (PIGA) is one of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor proteins, which function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Until recently, only somatic PIGA mutations had been reported in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), while germline mutations had not been observed, and were suspected to result in lethality. However, in just two years, whole exome sequencing (WES) analyses have identified germline PIGA mutations in male patients with XLIDD (X-linked intellectual developmental disorder) with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations.Here, we report on a new missense PIGA germline mutation [g.15342986C>T (p.S330N)] identified via WES followed by Sanger sequencing, in a Chinese male infant presenting with developmental arrest, infantile spasms, a pattern of lesion distribution on brain MRI resembling that typical of maple syrup urine disease, contractures, dysmorphism, elevated alkaline phosphatase, mixed hearing loss (a combination of conductive and sensorineural), liver dysfunction, mitochondrial complex I and V deficiency, and therapy-responsive dyslipidemia with confirmed lipoprotein lipase deficiency. X-inactivation studies showed skewing in the clinically unaffected carrier mother, and CD109 surface expression in patient fibroblasts was 57% of that measured in controls; together these data support pathogenicity of this mutation. Furthermore, we review all reported germline PIGA mutations (1 nonsense, 1 frameshift, 1 in-frame deletion, five missense) in 8 unrelated families.Our case further delineates the heterogeneous phenotype of this condition for which we propose the term PIGA deficiency. While the phenotypic spectrum is wide, it could be classified into two types (severe and less severe) with shared hallmarks of infantile spasms with hypsarrhythmia on EEG and profound XLIDD. In severe PIGA deficiency, as described in our patient, patients also present with dysmorphic facial features, multiple CNS abnormalities, such as thin corpus callosum and delayed myelination, as well as hypotonia and elevated alkaline phosphatase along with liver, renal, and cardiac involvement; its course is often fatal. The less severe form of PIGA deficiency does not involve facial dysmorphism and multiple CNS abnormalities; instead, patients present with milder IDD, treatable seizures and generally a longer lifespan.


Janer A.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Van Karnebeek C.D.M.,University of British Columbia | Sasarman F.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Antonicka H.,Montreal Neurological Institute | And 13 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2015

RMND1 is an integral inner membrane mitochondrial protein that assembles into a large 240 kDa complex to support translation of the 13 polypeptides encoded on mtDNA, all of which are essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes. Variants in RMND1 produce global defects in mitochondrial translation and were first reported in patients with severe neurological phenotypes leading to mortality in the first months of life. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified compound heterozygous RMND1 variants in a 4-year-old patient with congenital lactic acidosis, severe myopathy, hearing loss, renal failure, and dysautonomia. The levels of mitochondrial ribosome proteins were reduced in patient fibroblasts, causing a translation defect, which was rescued by expression of the wild-type cDNA. RMND1 was almost undetectable by immunoblot analysis in patient muscle and fibroblasts. BN-PAGE analysis showed a severe combined OXPHOS assembly defect that was more prominent in patient muscle than in fibroblasts. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that RMND1 localizes to discrete foci in the mitochondrial network, juxtaposed to RNA granules where the primary mitochondrial transcripts are processed. RMND1 foci were not detected in patient fibroblasts. We hypothesize that RMND1 acts to anchor or stabilize the mitochondrial ribosome near the sites where the mRNAs are matured, spatially coupling post-transcriptional handling mRNAs with their translation, and that loss of function variants in RMND1 are associated with a unique constellation of clinical phenotypes that vary with the severity of the mitochondrial translation defect. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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