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Hjelmeland A.K.,University of California at Davis | Collins T.S.,University of California at Davis | Miles J.L.,Treasury Wine Estates | Wylie P.L.,Agilent Technologies | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2012

Haloanisole contamination causes development of "cork taint," a musty off-aroma in affected wines. Cork taint results in significant economic loss for the wine and allied industries every year, therefore extensive quality-control procedures have been established at wineries and cork production facilities to monitor levels of haloanisoles in cork products. Because of the extremely low human sensory thresholds for these compounds (~1 to 4 ng/L for 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wine), highly sensitive analytical methods are needed to detect the haloanisoles at threshold concentrations or lower. We present a method for the simultaneous analysis of four haloanisoles in wine-2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA); 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole (TeCA); 2,3,4,5,6-pentachloroanisole (PCA); and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA)-that have been frequently associated with cork taint aromas in wines. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to a GC-triple quadrupole MS was used to obtain limits of quantification that were ≤1.0 ng/L and below sensory threshold levels. The method is fully automated, requires no sample preparation other than the addition of internal standards, and is high throughput, with a 10-min extraction time and a 5-min incubation prior to extraction. This method can be readily adapted to screen for haloanisoles in cork extracts. © 2012 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved. Source

Marangon M.,The Australian Wine Research Institute | Lucchetta M.,University of Padua | Duan D.,Fosters Group | Stockdale V.J.,Treasury Wine Estates | And 5 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2012

Backgrounds and Aims: Bentonite is commonly added to white wines to remove the grape proteins responsible for haze formation. Despite being effective, this technique has drawbacks; thus, new solutions are desirable. The ability of carrageenan and pectin to remove heat-unstable grape proteins, and the impact that such addition has on the physicochemical and sensorial profile of a wine were assessed. Methods and Results: Carrageenan and pectin were added separately or in combination to a Chardonnay juice prior to fermentation. Both adsorbents removed proteins (up to 75%), thus increasing wine protein stability. Carrageenan was more effective than pectin at increasing wine protein stability. Conclusions: Pectin and carrageenan removed protein and partially stabilized the samples of the wine. Significance of the Study: Pre-fermentation addition of pectin or carrageenan may provide the wine industry with an alternative protein stabilization procedure. © 2012 The Australian Wine Research Institute. Source

Butzke C.E.,Purdue University | Vogt E.E.,eProvenance | Chacon-Rodriguez L.,Treasury Wine Estates
Journal of Wine Research | Year: 2012

The exposure of wine to elevated temperatures has a profound impact on its aging reactions and its sensory quality, shelf life and healthfulness. This study monitored the exposure of wine to heat during commercial shipments through the national distribution chain from wineries to wholesalers across the USA under extreme but realistic conditions. The results document the exposure of wine shipments in regular non-refrigerated containers with different types of external and internal insulation. During the months of summer and early autumn, wines shipped to or via hot geographic locations were frequently exposed to temperatures above 24°C and often for extended periods of time. Under the most extreme shipping conditions, wines would have been exposed to temperatures of up to 44°C. Notable diurnal fluctuations (4-21°C) were observed. The accumulated heat exposure of the wines was calculated using ethyl carbamate formation as a wine quality indicator and different kinetic models for wine aging were applied to make a comparison with wine storage under empirically ideal cellar conditions. These calculations suggest that some wines were exposed to heat during transport that corresponded to an added bottle age between 1 and 18 months when compared with conventional cellar storage. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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Mcloughlin S.J.,Treasury Wine Estates | Mcloughlin S.J.,University of Adelaide | Petrie P.R.,Treasury Wine Estates | Petrie P.R.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2011

Background and Aims: Bunch number per node or shoot varies significantly between seasons and is a major cause of yield variation. Varying total node numbers by pruning is the least expensive way to regulate yield. However, there is little information available on how varying bearer length (and thus node number) in a machine-pruned canopy alters yield components. Methods and Results: The impact of bearer length on yield components was investigated in a mechanically pruned vineyard in Coonawarra, South Australia. Yield components were analysed according to the node position on the bearer at which the shoot arose. Both budburst and inflorescence number per node were highest at the distal node positions regardless of bearer length. When node positions two and three were located in the two most distal nodes made terminal by the pruning, they were significantly more fruitful than equivalent nodes on longer bearers. Shoots that arose from the two most distal node positions had the highest flower number per inflorescence and berry number per bunch. Conclusions: Budburst, and the number and size of the inflorescence and bunch were affected more by the node position at which the shoot occurred relative to the cut end of the bearer, than the position of the node from the base of the bearer. Significance of the Study: Our understanding of how pruning regimes impact on yield and how these pruning regimes may be modified to achieve a target yield has been improved. © 2011 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc. Source

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