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Ferretti A.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Rucci A.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Tamburini A.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Rocca F.,Polytechnic of Milan
Sustainable Earth Sciences, SES 2013: Technologies for Sustainable Use of the Deep Sub-Surface | Year: 2013

Reservoir monitoring improves our understanding of reservoir behavior and helps achieve more effective reservoir management and prediction of future performance with obvious economic benefits. Volumetric changes in reservoirs due to fluid extraction and injection can induce either subsidence or uplift which can trigger fault reactivation and threaten well integrity (as well as reservoir structural integrity). Depending on the depth of the reservoir and the characteristic of the cap rock, deformation may also be detectable at the surface. Surface deformation monitoring can provide valuable constraints on the dynamic behavior of a reservoir enabling the evaluation of volumetric changes in the reservoir through time, allowing the calibration of geo-mechanical models. Whatever the surveying technique, the detection of millimeter level surface deformation is required to monitor small surface displacement rates, which could impact risk evaluation and environmental impact assessment in oil & gas operations, as well as in geothermal plants.


Giannico C.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Ferretti A.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Jurina L.,Polytechnic of Milan | Ricci M.,Italferr Direzione Tecnica
Life-Cycle and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructure Systems - Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering, IALCCE 2012 | Year: 2012

Remote sensing techniques have been widely used in recent decades to monitor earth surface displacements. SqueeSAR" SAR interferometry is today one of the most advanced technologies for surface deformation monitoring. It exploits long temporal series of satellite radar data, acquired over the same area of interest at different times, to identify "natural radar targets" where very precise displacement information can be retrieved. Selected case studies will be presented, demonstrating how satellite radar data can provide useful information during the various stages of infrastructure construction, from design to building and management. Applications carried out in urban contexts demonstrated that satellite interferometry is not only suitable for monitoring slow and constant-velocity movements, but can successfully work even in case of abrupt changes and significant variations in displacement rate through time. In about ten years from its development, this technology has become a standard monitoring tool used as an integration with ground based monitoring techniques.


Raspini F.,University of Florence | Ciampalini A.,University of Florence | Del Conte S.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Lombardi L.,University of Florence | And 4 more authors.
Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

Pre- event and event landslide deformations have been detected and measured for the landslide that occurred on 3 December 2013 on the south-western slope of the Montescaglioso village (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). In this paper, ground displacements have been mapped through an integrated analysis based on a series of high resolution SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images acquired by the Italian constellation of satellites COSMO-SkyMed. Analysis has been performed by exploiting both phase (through multi-image SAR interferometry) and amplitude information (through speckle tracking techniques) of the satellite images. SAR Interferometry, applied to images taken before the event, revealed a general pre-event movement, in the order of a few mm/yr, in the south-western slope of the Montescaglioso village. Highest pre-event velocities, ranging between 8 and 12 mm/yr, have been recorded in the sector of the slope where the first movement of the landslide took place. Speckle tracking, applied to images acquired before and after the event, allowed the retrieval of the 3D deformation field produced by the landslide. It also showed that ground displacements produced by the landslide have a dominant SSW component, with values exceeding 10 m for large sectors of the landslide area, with local peaks of 20 m in its central and deposit areas. Two minor landslides with a dominant SSE direction, which were detected in the upper parts of the slope, likely also occurred as secondary phenomena as consequence of the SSW movement of the main Montescaglioso landslide. © 2015 by the authors.


Rucci A.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Ferretti A.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Novali F.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Tamburini A.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Vasco D.W.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts | Year: 2011

It is well established that satellite-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry can provide accurate and spatially dense surface deformation measurements. In the InSalah project SAR interferometry has proven effective in monitoring surface deformation induced by CO2 injection. Typically, a single SAR geometry provides a projection of the surface displacement vector along the look vector or line-of-sight (LOS). However, in this paper we highlight the utility of combining SAR data from two or more geometries in order to derive a two-component surface displacement field. We also show how the availability of both vertical and East-West displacement components better constrains an inversion for injection-related deformation improving our understanding of reservoir dynamics. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.


Vasco D.W.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Rutqvist J.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Ferretti A.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | Rucci A.,TRE Tele Rilevamento Europa | And 6 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

We resolve deformation at The Geysers Geothermal Field using two distinct sets of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. The first set of observations utilize archived European Space Agency C-band synthetic aperture radar data from 1992 through 1999 to image the long-term and large-scale subsidence at The Geysers. The peak range velocity of approximately 50 mm/year agrees with previous estimates from leveling and global positioning system observations. Data from a second set of measurements, acquired by TerraSAR-X satellites, extend from May 2011 until April 2012 and overlap the C-band data spatially but not temporally. These X-band data, analyzed using a combined permanent and distributed scatterer algorithm, provide a higher density of scatterers (1122 per square kilometer) than do the C-band data (12 per square kilometer). The TerraSAR-X observations resolve 1 to 2 cm of deformation due to water injection into a Northwest Geysers enhanced geothermal system well, initiated on October 2011. The temporal variation of the deformation is compatible with estimates from coupled numerical modeling. © 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

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