Hunt G.T.,TRC Environmental Corporation |
Lihzis M.F.,TRC Environmental Corporation
Chemosphere | Year: 2011
The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) commenced monitoring for PCDDs/PCDFs (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in ambient air in 1987 and adopted the long term (30d) sampling approach in 1993. The CTDEP method represents the first use of isotopically labeled PCDDs/PCDFs as field surrogates to monitor the behavior of native PCDDs/PCDFs present in actual ambient air samples. This feature first introduced in 1987 was later adopted by US EPA in revisions to sampling methods for PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air (EPA Method TO9A) as well as development of EPA Reference Method 23 for measurement of PCDDs/PCFDs in stationary source emissions. Results are provided here for a total of twenty-three (23) samples (reported as pairs) representing twelve (12) 30d sampling events conducted at a site located in metropolitan Hartford CT. Samples were collected in winter months during calendar years 2002-2008. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration data (pgm -3) are reported as both congener sums (Cl 4-Cl 8) and 2378-substitued congeners. Total PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations for these twelve (12) sampling events ranged from 0.68pgm -3 (2003) to 4.18pgm -3 (2004) with a mean concentration of 2.04pgm -3.Method performance was monitored through use of collocated samples, in field isotopically labeled compounds, isotopically labeled laboratory applied internal standards and field blank samples. Method performance consistently exceeded goals established in USEPA Method TO9A for these same parameters. Average recoveries of in field labeled PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 97.5% to 104.2%. Average (mean) recoveries for each of the ten (10) isotopically labeled internal standards ranged from 77.0% ( 13C-OCDF) to 95.5% ( 13C-2,3,7,8-TCDF). Method precision defined as % RPD data for collocated sampler pairs ranged from 8% to 14% for PCDDs and from 5% to 12% for PCDFs. The mean RPD for all PCDDs/PCDFs combined is 9.6%. Field monitoring results demonstrate method sensitivity for all PCDDs/PCDFs congeners and 2378-substituted congeners to be well below concentrations typically found for these compounds in ambient air (all reported data represent measured concentrations). Quantities (pg) found in field blanks represent the major determinant to achieving further enhancements in method sensitivity for selected congeners (OCDD<42fgm -3; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD<5.7fgm -3; and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF<2.1fgm -3). The CTDEP method represents a highly sensitive and reliable technique for monitoring of PCDDs/PCDFs congeners and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at ultra trace levels in ambient air (fgm -3). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Krall M.J.,TRC Environmental Corporation
Air and Waste Management Association - International Conference on Thermal Treatment Technologies and Hazardous Waste Combustors 2013 | Year: 2013
The term Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT), as it relates to hazardous waste combustion (HWC), implies trialing a combustor under extreme operating conditions to demonstrate air emissions compliance and provide flexibility for future operations. Typically, a CPT is conducted for the purpose of complying with RCRA-based HWC MACT standards (i.e. organic compounds destruction, particulate matter, metals and chlorine control, etc.). Recently, the owner of a thermal desorption system (TDS) has been advised that the equipment must comply with the HWC MACT standards as well as state air permit regulations regardless from the fact the TDS does not "combust" hazardous waste. In addition, the TDS owner wishes to obtain further operating flexibility through the treatment of PCB-waste, governed by the (soon to be defunct) TSCA regulations. This presentation will be focused on an integrated approach to provide data to permit and comply the TDS with HWC MACT, TSCA and state air regulations all within the structure of a single test program. The permitting and regulatory aspects of each authority are presented, the details of the test matrix, how each test parameter feeds the requirements of each regulation, and finally, the detailed testing logistics to collect all the required data simultaneously from a single, 4" exhaust location with emphasis on safety, quality, and efficiency.
Krall M.,TRC Environmental Corporation
Environmental Conference 2013 | Year: 2013
The refinery ICR initiated a sampling and analysis undertaking that challenged the refineries, air testing groups and analytical laboratories. Many sources presented unique challenges in applying traditional EPA test methodologies. The request to gather standard pollutant and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) data from delayed coking unit (DCU) vent exhausts using traditional EPA combustion source test methods presented perhaps one of the most significant challenges. Most, if not all, DCU vent sources are comprised of moisture vapor on the order of >90% (and often up to 98-99%). In addition, these vents are typically hot and have high velocities during their short venting cycles. Despite pretesting discussions over the methods applicability, the refinery ICR went forward with the challenge of using traditional air testing methods to collect data from, essentially, a liquid stream. The challenge was met head on and through planning, pretesting, and imaginative modifications to the required test methods, DCU vent exhaust data was generated. Unfortunately, the generated data was shown to be limited in its application to the development of future MACT standards for DCU vent sources due to a number of factors, specifically, elevated limits of detection for a number of compound groups. This presentation is designed to show that through thoughtful consideration and imagination, solutions can be developed and applied to a seemingly "un-testable" source, but the use of air methods on super-saturated vent exhausts has brought into question the applicability of those methods based on the data results.
Hoffnagle G.F.,TRC Environmental Corporation
Air and Waste Management Association - Guideline on Air Quality Models 2013: The Path Forward | Year: 2013
Before EPA requires extremely expensive modeling of new sources to address the secondary impact questions, it must consider the additional burden on new sources to accomplish this modeling and recognize that the expected secondary formation impacts are trivial to less than significant. Sources, such as in the examples presented here, may not contribute significant secondary impacts.
Serne J.,TRC Environmental Corporation
Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA | Year: 2012
In December 2010, the EPA replaced Method 201A for PM10 sampling and Method 202 for determining condensable PM with new sampling and analytical procedures. PM2.5 and/or PM10 can be determined by the new Method 201A. However, at many emission sources, especially those equipped with efficient control devices, Method 201A test runs would need to be several hours long in order to collect sufficient PM in the cyclone(s) to gravimetrically determine the PM10 and/or PM2.5 size cuts. An alternative sampling and analytical procedure is described that entails collecting the particles on smooth surfaced filters which can be analyzed by SEM. It focuses on the differences between EPA Method 201A and the SEM based test method. Differences in sampling equipment, analytical procedures, as well as potential differences in test results and cost are discussed. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 106th AWMA Annual Conference and Exhibition (Chicago, IL 6/25-28/2013).
Jones M.S.,TRC Environmental Corporation
Air and Waste Management Association - Guideline on Air Quality Models 2016: The New Path | Year: 2016
The application of prognostic data in air quality modeling has been increasingly gaining community and regulatory approval over the last decade. Given that The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is the meteorological modeling community's supported system, this model's characteristics and its configuration within an air quality modeling project will become of greater import. The sources of uncertainty and inaccuracy in WRF modeling should be well understood and recognized by the air quality modeling community, with every practical attempt made to increase accuracy and performance. In the meteorological modeling community, ensemble systems have been employed with considerable success in order to improve long- Term (i.e., multi-season or multi-year) accuracy of a modeling system. Each air quality modeling project that makes use of WRF modeling data is at its core a multi-year modeling system, with projects routinely requiring up to Five years of WRF model data to be used as input to the air quality model. Simple and proven ensemble modeling techniques comprised of multiple initial conditions and multiple physics configurations could be readily developed to increase multi-year skill of WRF forecasts and improve meteorological data inputs to air quality modeling systems. The benefits of incorporating simple ensemble modeling concepts were explored in order to produce increased climatological accuracy of wind speed representation at multiple terrain regions. The ensemble modeling system was shown to have improved skill and dampened bias over typical meteorological model configurations.
Kent Nilsson R.,TRC Environmental Corporation
PEERS Conference 2014 | Year: 2014
The recent, highly-publicized releases of residuals or chemicals from industrial containment structures into public waters has focused new attention on treatment basins and impoundments located on rivers and waterways. By nature of its facility locations, the forest products industry is expected to be under increased regulatory and public scrutiny. These existing impoundments are most typically constructed of earthen berms. The containment can be either lined or unlined. Owner concerns can range from the potential for leaking to catastrophic structural failure. Failure can be the result of deferred maintenance, changes in storm water management, material deterioration, inattentive operation, etc. Understanding and managing the risks associated with the entire containment system will be critical to maintaining impoundment integrity and preventing any release.
Elam D.,TRC Environmental Corporation
EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers | Year: 2014
Storyboarding presentations can help us deliver clear messages that guide recipients toward a fact-based conclusion that is consistent with our analysis and position. Copyright © 2014 Air & Waste Management Association.
Elam D.L.,TRC Environmental Corporation
Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA | Year: 2015
On 5/14/2014, EPA issued a proposed rule that would further control hazardous air pollutant emissions from refineries. The proposed rule is based on the risk and technology review of two emission standards already in place at refineries, i.e., the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries (Refinery MACT 1) and the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units (Refinery MACT 2). The requirement for fenceline monitoring is unique in that EPA does not expect emission reductions due to implementation of the requirement. The proposed rule requires refineries to deploy a network of diffusive ambient monitors for the measurement of benzene at the fenceline around the facility in accordance with the requirements set forth in EPA Method 325A. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 108th AWMA Annual Conference and Exhibition (Raleigh, NC 6/22-25/2015).
Elam D.L.,TRC Environmental Corporation
EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers | Year: 2015
The improving economy has provided many companies the opportunity to revisit pricing with the goal of returning to profitability levels that were in place before the "Great Recession." At the same time, many firms are extending payment cycles, perhaps remembering how credit tightened as the recession unfolded. We have examined the importance of managing cash flow in past columns (see "Managing Cash Flow," EM May 2012, pp. 46-47; and "Every Day Counts" EM May 2014, pp. 32-33.). Given these observed trends in pricing and payment cycle extensions, it is appropriate to evaluate the relationship between profitability and cash flow. Specifically, will a firm that focuses on profit management outperform a firm that focuses on cash flow management? © 2015, Air and Waste Management Association. All rights reserved.