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Rutland, MD, United States

Tocchetti C.G.,Traylor 911 | Tocchetti C.G.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Stanley B.A.,Traylor 911 | Murray C.I.,Traylor 911 | And 10 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling

The nitric oxide (NO•) sibling, nitroxyl or nitrosyl hydride (HNO), is emerging as a molecule whose pharmacological properties include providing functional support to failing hearts. HNO also preconditions myocardial tissue, protecting it against ischemia-reperfusion injury while exerting vascular antiproliferative actions. In this review, HNO's peculiar cardiovascular assets are discussed in light of its unique chemistry that distinguish HNO from NO• as well as from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as the hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite. Included here is a discussion of the possible routes of HNO formation in the myocardium and its chemical targets in the heart. HNO has been shown to have positive inotropic/lusitropic effects under normal and congestive heart failure conditions in animal models. The mechanistic intricacies of the beneficial cardiac effects of HNO are examined in cellular models. In contrast to β-receptor/cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A-dependent enhancers of myocardial performance, HNO uses its thiophylic nature as a vehicle to interact with redox switches such as cysteines, which are located in key components of the cardiac electromechanical machinery ruling myocardial function. Here, we will briefly review new features of HNO's cardiovascular effects that when combined with its positive inotropic/lusitropic action may render HNO donors an attractive addition to the current therapeutic armamentarium for treating patients with acutely decompensated congestive heart failure. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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