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Opar D.A.,Queensland University of Technology | Opar D.A.,Australian Catholic University | Serpell B.G.,Trauma and Orthopaedic Research Unit | Serpell B.G.,Australian National University
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2014

Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are the most prevalent injury in a number of sports, and while anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are less common, they are far more severe and have long-term implications, such as an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis later in life. Given the high incidence and severity of these injuries, they are key targets of injury preventive programs in elite sport. Evidence has shown that a previous severe knee injury (including ACL injury) increases the risk of HSI; however, whether the functional deficits that occur after HSI result in an increased risk of ACL injury has yet to be considered. In this clinical commentary, we present evidence that suggests that the link between previous HSI and increased risk of ACL injury requires further investigation by drawing parallels between deficits in hamstring function after HSI and in women athletes, who are more prone to ACL injury than men athletes. Comparisons between the neuromuscular function of the male and female hamstring has shown that women display lower hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratios during isokinetic knee flexion and extension, increased activation of the quadriceps compared with the hamstrings during a stop-jump landing task, a greater time required to reach maximal isokinetic hamstring torque, and lower integrated myoelectrical hamstring activity during a sidestep cutting maneuver. Somewhat similarly, in athletes with a history of HSI, the previously injured limb, compared with the uninjured limb, displays lower eccentric knee flexor strength, a lower hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength ratio, lower voluntary myoelectrical activity during maximal knee flexor eccentric contraction, a lower knee flexor eccentric rate of torque development, and lower voluntary myoelectrical activity during the initial portion of eccentric contraction. Given that the medial and lateral hamstrings have different actions at the knee joint in the coronal plane, which hamstring head is previously injured might also be expected to influence the likelihood of future ACL. Whether the deficits in function after HSI, as seen in laboratory-based studies, translate to deficits in hamstring function during typical injurious tasks for ACL injury has yet to be determined but should be a consideration for future work. © 2014 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.

Coulter C.L.,Australian National University | Scarvell J.M.,University of Canberra | Neeman T.M.,Australian National University | Smith P.N.,Trauma and Orthopaedic Research Unit
Journal of Physiotherapy | Year: 2013

Question: In people who have been discharged from hospital after a total hip replacement, do rehabilitation exercises directed by a physiotherapist improve strength, gait, function and quality of life? Are these exercises as effective in an unsupervised home-based setting as they are in a supervised outpatient setting? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: Adult patients after elective total hip replacement. Intervention: Physiotherapist-directed rehabilitation exercises after discharge from hospital following total hip replacement. Outcome measures: Hip and knee strength, gait parameters, functional measures, and quality of life. Results: Five studies comprising 234 participants were included in the review. Sufficient data for meta-analysis were only obtained for hip and knee strength, gait speed and cadence. Physiotherapy rehabilitation improved hip abductor strength by a mean of 16. Nm (95% CI 10 to 22), gait speed by 6 m/min (95% CI 1 to 11) and cadence by 20 steps/min (95% CI 8 to 32). Favourable but non-significant improvements in strength were noted for other muscle groups at the hip and knee. Function and quality of life could not be meta-analysed due to insufficient data and heterogeneity of measures, but functional measures tended to favour the physiotherapy rehabilitation group. Most outcomes were similar between outpatient and home-based exercise programs. Conclusion: Physiotherapy rehabilitation improves hip abductor strength, gait speed and cadence in people who have been discharged from hospital after total hip replacement. Physiotherapist-directed rehabilitation exercises appear to be similarly effective whether they are performed unsupervised at home or supervised by a physiotherapist in an outpatient setting. © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association.

Scarvell J.M.,Trauma and Orthopaedic Research Unit
The Physician and sportsmedicine | Year: 2013

Despite epidemiologic evidence for the presence of osteoporosis in patients with minimal trauma fractures, screening programs have not been routinely established in Australian ambulatory care clinics. Our study assessed the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in patients at a tertiary care hospital to gather local data to support policy change that favors bone mineral density screening. Our prospective observational study enrolled 115 patients, aged > 40 years, who had experienced a minimal trauma fracture. Inclusion criteria required that the patient had no history of testing for osteoporosis or metabolic bone disease/major pathology. The patients were recruited over a 6-month period. Eleven participants were excluded and 7 participants withdrew from the study, with a total of 97 patients completing the study. Participants were assessed for osteoporosis risk via bone mineral density measurement by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and blood screening for bone mineral levels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels. In our study patients, the prevalence of previously undiagnosed osteoporosis was 19%, undiagnosed osteopenia, 50%, and the standard bone mineral density was 32%. The most common risk factors for osteoporosis/osteopenia were smoking (22%), alcohol intake (16%), and corticosteroid use (9%). In 67% of patients, 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was in the low clinical range in 51% of patients, magnesium levels were in the high range and 18% of patients had elevated serum parathyroid levels. At month 12 of our study, 80 participants were available for follow-up: 2 patients had sustained a second fracture (1 was minimal trauma); 6 patients had required further surgery (3 fracture fixations, 3 for removal of internal fixation devices); 26 patients continued treatment regimens with calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation; and 28 patients had been prescribed bisphosphonates, with 22 patients complying with the prescription. The high prevalence of previously undiagnosed low bone mass in our study patient population, each of whom had experienced minimal trauma falls, provides impetus for the provision of osteoporosis screening programs and corresponding treatment as needed.

Fearon A.M.,Australian National University | Fearon A.M.,Trauma and Orthopaedic Research Unit | Scarvell J.M.,Australian National University | Scarvell J.M.,Trauma and Orthopaedic Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Effective treatment of hip pain improves population health and quality of life. Accurate differential diagnosis is fundamental to effective treatment. The diagnostic criteria for one common hip problem, greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) have not been well defined. Purpose: To define the clinical presentation of GTPS. Methods: Forty-one people with GTPS, 20 with hip osteoarthritis (OA), and 23 age-matched and sexmatched asymptomatic participants (ASC) were recruited. Inclusion and exclusion criteria ensured mutually exclusive groups. Assessment: the Harris hip score (HHS), a battery of clinical tests, and single leg stance (SLS). Participants identified the site of reproduced pain. Analysis: Fisher's exact test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) informed recursive partitioning to develop two classification trees. Results: Maximum walking distance and the ability to manipulate shoes and socks were the only HHS domains to differentiate GTPS from OA (ANOVA: p=0.010 and <0.001); OR (95% CI) of 3.47 (1.09 to 10.93) and 0.06 (0.00 to 0.26), respectively. The lateral hip pain (LHP) classification tree: (dichotomous LHP associated with a flexion abduction external rotation (FABER) test) had a mean (SE) sensitivity and specificity of 0.81 (0.019) and 0.82 (0.044), respectively. A non-specific hip pain classification tree had a mean (SE) sensitivity and specificity of 0.78 (0.058) and 0.28 (0.080). Conclusions: Patients with LHP in the absence of difficulty with manipulating shoes and socks, together with pain on palpation of the greater trochanter and LHP with a FABER test are likely to have GTPS.

Fearon A.M.,Australian National University | Fearon A.M.,Trauma and Orthopaedic Research Unit | Cook J.L.,Monash University | Scarvell J.M.,Australian National University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Arthroplasty | Year: 2014

Musculoskeletal injury causes pain and when chronic can affect mental health, employment and quality of life. This study examined work participation, function and quality of life in people with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS, n. =. 42), severe hip osteoarthritis (OA, n. =. 20) and an asymptomatic group (ASC, n. =. 23). No differences were found between the symptomatic groups on key measures, both were more affected than the ASC group, they had lower quality of life score (p. <. 0.001), Harris Hip Score (p. <. 0.001) and higher Oswestry Disability Index (p. <. 0.001). Participants with GTPS were the least likely to be in fulltime work (prob. GTPS. =. 0.29; OA. =. 0.52; and ASC. =. 0.68). GTPS appears to confer levels of disability and quality of life similar to levels associated with end stage hip OA. © 2014.

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