Transport Scotland

Glasgow, United Kingdom

Transport Scotland

Glasgow, United Kingdom
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Beeton D.A.,Foresight | Davison S.,Foresight | Tuck Z.,Transport Scotland
EVS 2016 - 29th International Electric Vehicle Symposium | Year: 2016

This paper explains the insights and lessons learned from developing the Scottish Government's Roadmap to Widespread Adoption of Plug-in Vehicles. This strategy drew on best practice from the fields of electric mobility and technology roadmapping to establish a comprehensive framework to guide future progress. This paper reviews the progress achieved to date in implementing this roadmap and explains the next steps to further advance the adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles in Scotland.

Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 4.73M | Year: 2011

National infrastructure (NI) systems (energy, transport, water, waste and ICT) in the UK and in advanced economies globally face serious challenges. The 2009 Council for Science and Technology (CST) report on NI in the UK identified significant vulnerabilities, capacity limitations and a number of NI components nearing the end of their useful life. It also highlighted serious fragmentation in the arrangements for infrastructure provision in the UK. There is an urgent need to reduce carbon emissions from infrastructure, to respond to future demographic, social and lifestyle changes and to build resilience to intensifying impacts of climate change. If this process of transforming NI is to take place efficiently, whilst also minimising the associated risks, it will need to be underpinned by a long-term, cross-sectoral approach to understanding NI performance under a range of possible futures. The systems of systems analysis that must form the basis for such a strategic approach does not yet exist - this inter-disciplinary research programme will provide it.The aim of the UK Infrastructure Transitions Research Consortium is to develop and demonstrate a new generation of system simulation models and tools to inform analysis, planning and design of NI. The research will deal with energy, transport, water, waste and ICT systems at a national scale, developing new methods for analysing their performance, risks and interdependencies. It will provide a virtual environment in which we will test strategies for long term investment in NI and understand how alternative strategies perform with respect to policy constraints such as reliability and security of supply, cost, carbon emissions, and adaptability to demographic and climate change.The research programme is structured around four major challenges:1. How can infrastructure capacity and demand be balanced in an uncertain future? We will develop methods for modelling capacity, demand and interdependence in NI systems in a compatible way under a wide range of technological, socio-economic and climate futures. We will thereby provide the tools needed to identify robust strategies for sustainably balancing capacity and demand.2. What are the risks of infrastructure failure and how can we adapt NI to make it more resilient?We will analyse the risks of interdependent infrastructure failure by establishing network models of NI and analysing the consequences of failure for people and the economy. Information on key vulnerabilities and risks will be used to identify ways of adapting infrastructure systems to reduce risks in future.3. How do infrastructure systems evolve and interact with society and the economy? Starting with idealised simulations and working up to the national scale, we will develop new models of how infrastructure, society and the economy evolve in the long term. We will use the simulation models to demonstrate alternative long term futures for infrastructure provision and how they might be reached.4. What should the UKs strategy be for integrated provision of NI in the long term? Working with a remarkable group of project partners in government and industry, we will use our new methods to develop and test alternative strategies for Britains NI, building an evidence-based case for a transition to sustainability. We will analyse the governance arrangements necessary to ensure that this transition is realisable in practice.A Programme Grant provides the opportunity to work flexibly with key partners in government and industry to address research challenges of national importance in a sustained way over five years. Our ambition is that through development of a new generation of tools, in concert with our government and industry partners, we will enable a revolution in the strategic analysis of NI provision in the UK, whilst at the same time becoming an international landmark programme recognised for novelty, research excellence and impact.

News Article | December 14, 2016

Scotland’s public spending watchdogs are planning to investigate a multibillion-pound scheme to build privately funded roads, schools and hospitals after serious doubts emerged about its value for money. Audit Scotland and the Accounts Commission will scrutinise the Scottish government’s privately financed NPD (non-profit distribution) programme after it breached strict European Union rules on government spending. The inquiry is due to start in 2018 and will test whether Scotland’s equivalent of the private finance initiative – a funding method for public projects that became widespread under the Blair and Brown governments – is economically efficient. It is understood preparatory work for the investigation has already begun. The error over interpreting EU rules is expected to cost Nicola Sturgeon’s government the equivalent of £932m in lost expenditure because it must now match the private finance spending under the NPD programme with money borrowed from the Treasury. The scramble for matching funds is expected to have knock-on effects on public expenditure in Scotland. Further details about the hit to Scotland’s finances are expected to emerge on Thursday when Derek Mackay, the Scottish finance secretary, publishes next year’s draft budget. Mary Alexander, deputy Scottish secretary for Unite, one of the trade unions that will protest against the NPD programme outside the Scottish parliament on Thursday, said the deals tied public authorities into “exorbitant” 25- to 30-year contracts. “The funding model rolled out by the Scottish government is nothing other than a public relations repackaging of the private finance initiative, with zero transparency and minimal accountability,” she said. The NPD programme, which was introduced by former first minister Alex Salmond, echoes the PFI structure by allowing private companies to build hospitals, schools and roads with debt finance which is then paid off by the taxpayer over a period of decades. Critics argue that the process costs governments more over the long term and fails to hold private operators to account. The Office for National Statistics raised the pressure on the NPD programme last year by deciding that the £865m in construction costs of four major private finance projects – the Aberdeen bypass, two hospitals and a blood transfusion service headquarters – must be added to government accounts under new EU spending rules because the schemes are heavily controlled by the public sector. Scottish ministers now admit a fifth scheme, to build a new hospital on Orkney for £67m, needs to be added to that. Because these projects must now go on the Scottish government balance sheet, ministers have less room to finance other infrastructure schemes. Opposition MSPs have been leading calls for a formal Holyrood investigation into the non profit distribution programme - or NPD - and the government agency which set it up, the Scottish Futures Trust. A joint investigation by the Guardian and the Ferret website has also found that the private consortium building Scotland’s largest NPD hospital in Dumfries – one of the four projects singled out by the ONS – is expected to generate £160m in interest and finance fees on loans totalling £242m, including the £212m spent on building the hospital. According to documents released by NHS Dumfries & Galloway under FoI legislation, the consortium – whose members include insurance group Aviva and building firm Laing O’Rourke – is charging an interest rate of 5.1% on borrowings of £218m. This results in the consortium earning more than £100m in interest payments from the public sector. It is also charging 11.3% on a further £24.2m in “subordinate debt”, which will earn financiers £37.5m in interest. If Scottish ministers had instead used public borrowing they would expect interest rates from the state-run national loans fund of about 1.6%. NHS Dumfries & Galloway failed to respond to questions on this from the Guardian. The joint investigation has also established that the NHS will be charged about three times as much as staff would earn for electricians, joiners and plumbers employed by the private contractors building and running new mental health facilities at the Royal Edinburgh hospital. The contractors, Galliford Try, will charge NHS Lothian £33 an hour for an electrician and £26 for a painter – excluding overheads and VAT. An NHS electrician’s wage starts at £9.82 an hour; a painter’s £8.59. Lothian NHS said health service pay rates did not include employee and tax costs, and said the contractors’ fees were competitive. Public spending experts, trade unions and opposition parties said these disclosures raise substantial questions about the NPD programme. Since the launch of the private finance scheme by the Scottish Futures Trust, dozens of health centres, hospitals, roads, colleges and schools have been built under two models: NPD and a related scheme known as “hub”, in which public bodies pool different building projects into joint contracts in the hope it lowers costs. These projects are on course to cost up to £9bn because they include substantial private maintenance contracts lasting for up to 30 years. However, the Scottish Futures Trust failed to forecast that new EU rules on private financing for public infrastructure meant that all the NPD contracts which were signed after September 2014 would be counted as public assets. As a result, ministers had to match their capital costs with the equivalent value from public borrowing – a figure which has now reached £932m. This accounting exercise means that £932m in public borrowing money cannot now be spent, while the NHS and Transport Scotland must still pay the higher interest rates and fees charged for those projects by private financiers. Neil Findlay, the Labour MSP and convenor of Holyrood’s health committee, said this reinforced his view there was a strong case for a Holyrood investigation alongside Audit Scotland’s. “We need to find out who actually owns these so called ‘public services’, who benefits and profits from investment in them, what is the scale of that profit, what is the impact on workers affected by any change in ownership and whether we could do things better in a way that offers far better value for the public pound,” he said. Jim and Margaret Cuthbert, economists who specialise in investigating private finance projects, said the NPD system could be an improvement on PFI because it should involve greater controls on private profits. But they said the ONS report on the Aberdeen bypass raised concerns over the high finance charges levied under NPD projects. “There is extremely limited information about what is going on. And that is really probably the biggest problem about [Scottish Futures Trust] activities – the lack of information we have, the lack of accountability,” Jim Cuthbert said. Caroline Gardner, auditor general at Scotland’s public spending watchdog, said the Scottish government had to take a far more strategic approach to its investment plans and finances. Gardner said this was a pressing need because the chancellor’s autumn statement last month allocated Scotland an extra £800m in capital funding from the Treasury. “We will continue to keep a close eye on the Scottish government’s approach, including its plans for funding its investment programme, and report where appropriate,” she said. The Scottish government said the revised EU rules were released after its NPD projects were underway. A spokesman insisted they still offered value for money, and helped strengthen Scotland’s economy. “The NPD and hub models are an improvement on previous PFI deals,” he said. “They enable investment in public projects in Scotland to be brought forward more quickly than would otherwise be available through our capital allocation and limited borrowing powers.” He added: “We have been open and transparent about the impact of classification on the NPD programme and is willing to assist Audit Scotland should they choose to undertake any further review.”

Winter M.G.,TRL Inc | Harrison M.,British Geological Survey | Macgregor F.,Transport Scotland | Shackman L.,Transport Scotland
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2013

A series of rainfall-induced debris flow events in August 2004 affected the Scottish road network, and at Glen Ogle 57 people were airlifted to safety. Although there were no major injuries, the social and economic impacts were significant, particularly the severance of access to and from relatively remote communities. A study was commissioned with the overall purpose of ensuring that the hazards posed by debris flows were systematically assessed and ranked, thus allowing actions at specific sites to be prioritised effectively within available budgets. The methodology used to undertake a pan-Scotland, GIS-based assessment of debris flow susceptibility is described, as is the approach taken to interpret the resulting imagery in order to establish those sections of road alignment subject to hazards. The hazard scores assigned using this approach were subsequently modified in the light of the results of site-specific inspections. The ranking of hazards based upon the potential exposure of road users to debris flow hazards and the potential socio-economic impacts is also described, and a map illustrates the locations of the highest hazard-ranking sites. The success of the system is briefly discussed in the context of subsequent events, and the approach to management and mitigation is outlined.

Chisholm A.J.,Arup | Mellon P.,Transport Scotland | West S.,Ramboll
Geotechnical Engineering for Infrastructure and Development - Proceedings of the XVI European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ECSMGE 2015 | Year: 2015

The construction of the marine foundations for the Queensferry Crossing has employed steel caissons and cofferdams of massive scale. These structures were neccssary to facilitate the construction of large spread foundations, through thick alluvial and glacial deposits onto rock, designed to support the towers and piers of the new 2.6km bridge crossing. With turbid waters up to 20m deep in an open estuary, the marine setting has made for a challenging construction environment. The Employer recognised the challenge of constructing foundations in this environment and the need to ensure the foundation performance requirements were met by managing geotechnical risk at an early stage. Foundation Construction Trials were identified to address specific geotechnical risks. Four principal construction trials were envisaged pre-contract award and stipulated within the Employer's Requirements. This paper describes the aim, specification and scope evolution of the four principal construction trials. A summary of the issues encountered during the trials together with their resolution and outcome will be described. The foundation trials have proven to be invaluable not just in gaining validation of the foundation construction techniques, but also in improving communication across construction teams, improving supply chain issues and better understanding of health and safety issues . © The authors and ICE Publishing: All rights reserved, 2015.

Fox J.,Halcrow Group Ltd. | Bell D.,Halcrow Group Ltd. | Edmond G.,Transport Scotland | Cummings P.,Halcrow Group Ltd. | Langstraat J.,Halcrow Group Ltd.
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Transport | Year: 2011

The Climate Change (Scotland) Act requires that public bodies 'act in the way best calculated to deliver [Scotland's] emission reduction targets'. Transport Scotland, the infrastructure management and delivery agency of the Scottish government, commissioned Halcrow to develop a range of carbon dioxide footprinting and assessment tools known as the carbon management system (CMS). This paper presents, as a case study, the results of a recent pilot for the CMS road infrastructure projects tool to provide a transparent mechanism for reporting infrastructure project carbon dioxide emissions at construction stage. Two further case studies demonstrate how the tool informs carbon dioxide analysis and optimisation through design. These investigate the potential carbon benefits of 'crack and seat' processes, the use of long-life pavement material and the need to carefully examine the transport implications of recycled content specifications, if the ultimate requirement is a 'lower carbon' infrastructure solution. The case studies demonstrate the value of the CMS tools in integrating carbon considerations with civil engineering design, construction and reporting processes.

Hackney M.,URS Corporation | Gair C.,Transport Scotland
Assessment, Upgrading and Refurbishment of Infrastructures | Year: 2013

The M8 White Cart Viaduct was designed and constructed in accordance with the Department of Transport (DOT) and British Standards of the time and was opened to traffic in March 1968. It is one of the most important major bridges in Scotland, carrying more than 90,000 vehicles a day. However, following an unfavourable assessment of the bridge in 2001, the Scottish Executive Development Department (SEDD now Transport Scotland (TS)) engaged Scott Wilson Scotland Limited (since acquired by URS) to develop a phased refurbishment strategy to upgrade the bridge. The refurbishment proposals included the replacement of the parapets, replacement of the expansion joints, waterproofing, resurfacing, and strengthening of the steel box girders. This paper describes the design of the refurbishment works, particularly the steel box girder strengthening including the replacement of the vulnerable half-joints.

Shackman L.,Transport Scotland | Climie D.,Transport Scotland
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Civil Engineering | Year: 2016

The Forth Road Bridge has carried road traffic across the Forth estuary in Scotland since 1964. It will be replaced at the end of 2016 by the Queensferry Crossing, Scotland’s biggest infrastructure project in a generation. Currently estimated to cost around £1·3 billion, the replacement crossing project consists of a 2·7 km long cable-stayed bridge, associated connecting roads and junction improvements, and a stateof- the-art 22 km long intelligent transport system to manage traffic through the project corridor. All of these elements are key to maintaining the strategically vital link. This paper concentrates on the various stages of the project’s development from initial scoping through to the award of the construction contracts. Construction will be covered in a future paper. © 2016, ICE Publishing. All rights reserved.

Mellon P.,Transport Scotland | Chisholm A.J.,Arup | Drennan S.J.,Arup
Geotechnical Engineering for Infrastructure and Development - Proceedings of the XVI European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ECSMGE 2015 | Year: 2015

The Forth Replacement Crossing project is the largest infrastructure project in Scotland for a generation, comprising the 2.6km-long Queensferry Crossing itself together with extensive road network connections. During the processes of scheme development, authorisation and procurement, the Employer's team used a range of approaches to manage project and geotechnical risk. The Employer's Delivery Team then carried through the approaches developed during these early phases of the project into the construction phase, working collaboratively with the Contractors and their Design Teams to ensure that the designs for foundations and earthworks and the construction methodologies and safety measures to be used, aligned with the Employer's expectations for the achievement of the project's specification, budget, programme and maintenance objectives. The application of the approaches taken is demonstrated in examples from both the crossing itself and the associated road network connections on land. © The authors and ICE Publishing: All rights reserved, 2015.

News Article | November 21, 2016

GLASGOW, Scotland, Nov. 21, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Transport Scotland, the agency responsible for the delivery of major infrastructure projects and for overseeing the operation of the Scottish transport networks, has awarded CH2M the Performance Audit Group (PAG) commission. As the...

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