Wang C.,Beijing Normal University |
Zhang L.,Beijing Normal University |
Liu J.,Transport Planning and Research Institute
Frontiers of Earth Science | Year: 2013
Assessing the extent to which all bio-fuels that are claimed to be renewable are in fact renewable is essential because producing such renewable fuels itself requires some amount of non-renewable energy (NE) and materials. Using hybrid life cycle analysis (LCA)-from raw material collection to delivery of pellets to end users-the energy cost of wood pellet production in China was estimated at 1. 35 J/J, of which only 0. 09 J was derived from NE, indicating that only 0. 09 J of NE is required to deliver 1 J of renewable energy into society and showing that the process is truly renewable. Most of the NE was consumed during the conversion process (46. 21%) and delivery of pellets to end users (40. 69%), during which electricity and diesel are the two major forms of NE used, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the distance over which the pellets are transported affects the cost of NE significantly. Therefore the location of the terminal market and the site where wood resources are available are crucial to saving diesel. © 2013 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Xu H.-L.,Tsinghua University |
Xu H.-L.,Transport Planning and Research Institute |
Chen J.-N.,Tsinghua University |
Wang S.-D.,Transport Planning and Research Institute |
Liu Y.,Tsinghua University
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2012
In this article an oil spill forecast model based on uncertainty analysis (OSMUA) is developed by incorporating HSY algorithm into the traditional Lagrangian oil spill model. While the traditional model focuses on simulating the trajectory of oil spill, the uncertainty-based model can present the spatial distribution of model parameters so that the reliability of the simulation could be improved. To assess the effectiveness of OSMUA, the Dalian Oil Spill accident on 16 July, 2010 is chosen as a case. By applying HSY in the calibration of oil spill parameters and then analyzing the uncertainty of the parameters, OSMUA gets reasonable simulation result, from which the most likely amount of oil spill in this accident is also determined. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Yan X.,Wuhan University of Technology |
Ma M.,Wuhan University of Technology |
Ma M.,Transport Planning and Research Institute |
Huang H.,Central South University |
And 2 more authors.
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2011
This research presents a comprehensive analysis of motor vehicle-bicycle crashes using 4 years of reported crash data (2004-2007) in Beijing. The interrelationship of irregular maneuvers, crash patterns and bicyclist injury severity are investigated by controlling for a variety of risk factors related to bicyclist demographics, roadway geometric design, road environment, etc. Results show that different irregular maneuvers are correlated with a number of risk factors at different roadway locations such as the bicyclist age and gender, weather and traffic condition. Furthermore, angle collisions are the leading pattern of motor vehicle-bicycle crashes, and different irregular maneuvers may lead to some specific crash patterns such as head-on or rear-end crashes. Orthokinetic scrape is more likely to result in running over bicyclists, which may lead to more severe injury. Moreover, bicyclist injury severity level could be elevated by specific crash patterns and risk factors including head-on and angle collisions, occurrence of running over bicyclists, night without streetlight, roads without median/division, higher speed limit, heavy vehicle involvement and older bicyclists. This study suggests installation of median, division between roadway and bikeway, and improvement of illumination on road segments. Reduced speed limit is also recommended at roadway locations with high bicycle traffic volume. Furthermore, it may be necessary to develop safety campaigns aimed at male, teenage and older bicyclists. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zheng C.,Transport Planning and Research Institute |
Zheng C.,Tsinghua University |
Liu Y.,Tsinghua University |
Bluemling B.,Wageningen University |
And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015
To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Liu S.,CAS Institute of Automation |
Tan W.,IBM |
Xu Z.,Transport Planning and Research Institute |
Liu X.,CAS Institute of Automation
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2014
This paper presents a binary tree search algorithm for the three dimensional container loading problem (3D-CLP). The 3D-CLP is about how to load a subset of a given set of rectangular boxes into a rectangular container, such that the packing volume is maximized. In this algorithm, all the boxes are grouped into strips and layers while three constraints, i.e., full support constraint, orientation constraint and guillotine cutting constraint are satisfied. A binary tree is created where each tree node denotes a container loading plan. For a non-root each node, the layer set of its left (or right) child is obtained by inserting a directed layer into its layer set. A directed layer is parallel (or perpendicular) to the left side of the container. Each leaf node denotes a complete container loading plan. The solution is the layer set whose total volume of the boxes is the greatest among all tree nodes. The proposed algorithm achieves good results for the well-known 3D-CLP instances suggested by Bischoff and Ratcliff with reasonable computing time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
He J.-C.,Transport Planning and Research Institute
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2012
Although aircrafts are of great importance in transportation in China, there has been rare study on air pollutant emissions of aircrafts until now. Based on the annually statistical data collected by the Statistic Center of Civil Aviation of China, using the emission factor method derived from fuel consumption, the air pollutant emissions of aircrafts during 1980-2009 were calculated, and their emission intensities and dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The results show that the emissions of SO2, CO, NOx and HC from aircrafts of China Civil Aviation increased from 0.31 thousand, 1.89 thousand, 2.25 thousand and 3.14 thousand tons in 1980 to 11.83 thousand, 72.98 thousand, 87.05 thousand and 121.59 thousand tons in 2009, indicating a increase of 0.397 thousand, 2.45 thousand, 2.92 thousand and 4.08 thousand tons per year, respectively. The emission intensities of SO2, CO, NOx and HC decreased significantly from 0.624, 3.806, 4.53 and 6.322 g·(t·km)-1 in 1980 to 0.275, 1.697, 2.025 and 2.828 g·(t·km)-1 in 2009, respectively. SO2, CO, NOx emissions of aircrafts of China Civil Aviation accounted very little of each total emissions in China, and the air pollutant emissions from aircrafts of China Civil Aviation was less than those from other industries in China.
Ye L.,Transport Planning and Research Institute |
Liu Y.,Transport Planning and Research Institute
ICTE 2015 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Transportation Engineering | Year: 2015
Road system is one of important part of lifeline systems in disaster-prone areas. It is very significant to do the lifeline road planning in disaster-prone area to mitigate disaster loss and save lives. The paper borrowed ideas from developed countries about lifeline road's definition, planning methods, and planning experiences. After that, the definition of lifeline road in our country has been set. And several affect factors of lifeline road planning were found, they are: natural characteristics, type of disasters, spatial distributions, transportation system, and other lifeline system distributions. The planning object was set up to build a definite function, wide coverage, flexible and reliable, and smooth lifeline road system. According to the object, basic principles were suggested and the planning method was provided. By integrating node layout and dynamic programming with the guidance of planning objects, there are two paths to planning the lifeline road based on evaluating existing road network, the first one is to select critical links of road network, and the second one is to improve the road network structure. © ASCE.
Zhou L.,Transport Planning and Research Institute
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014
Different hydrated lime content in asphalt mastic greatly influences the performances of asphalt mixture. The aim of this paper is to study asphalt mastic made with different content of hydrated lime was used in Dynamic Shear Rheological and Viscosity Tests. The optimum hydrated lime content was proposed in terms of test results above. The results illustrated that hydrated lime was an appropriate addition agent which can improve asphalt mastic properties greatly, however, too much hydrated lime may result in the decrease of asphalt mixture performances. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Li S.C.,Transport Planning and Research Institute
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014
This paper studies the correlation of non-destructive pavement test devices, the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) and Benkelman Beam (BB), in evaluation of pavement structure capacity. Field measurements were made at an expansion highway-G6 in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Based on the deflection results measured with FWD and BB, the relationship between FWD and BB was established. The subgrade moduli of the test section were back-calculated. The results show that the ratio of E(sta) and MR(dyn) is consistent with the suggestion of AASHTO 1993. Due to the fact that the use of FWD test is convenient and the results are stable, it demonstrates that the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is an appropriate device to evaluate the pavement structural and to select the optimal pavement rehabilitation strategy in the near future. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
He J.-C.,Transport Planning and Research Institute
Jiaotong Yunshu Xitong Gongcheng Yu Xinxi/Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology | Year: 2011
The energy consumptions of aircrafts during 1960-2009 are calculated, and the energy consumption intensity and its dynamic characteristics are analyzed, based on annual statistical data collected by Chinese Civil Aviation Statistic Center. The results show that the energy consumption of aircrafts in China increases at a rate of 0.4024 Mt standard coal equivalent per year. The energy consumption intensity of aircrafts decreases from 1.42 kg standard coal equivalent (converted t km)-1 in 1960 to 0.46 kg standard coal equivalent (converted t km)-1 in 2009 at an average rate of 19.6 g standard coal equivalent (converted t km)-1 per year. The energy consumption of aircrafts exceed that of locomotives since 2002. The proportion of aircrafts energy consumption to that of vehicles in China is 4.4%. This study can provide some valuable data on the status quo of energy consumption of civil aviation of China. Furthermore, the estimation presented in this paper can also give some suggestions for making energy saving strategy in China civil aviation.