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Jorda-Beneyto M.,Transport and Logistics Research Institute | Ortuno N.,Transport and Logistics Research Institute | Devis A.,Transport and Logistics Research Institute | Aucejo S.,Transport and Logistics Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2014

Two organo-modified clays for food contact applications were developed to produce hydrophobically modified montmorillonite and hence to obtain better compatibility between the biopolymer and the filler (nanoclay). These nanofillers were characterised by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in order to study their composition, structure and thermal stability. The fillers were used to reinforce polylactic acid (PLA) bottles, which were characterised using different techniques such as mechanical and barrier properties, morphology and thermal stability. The results were compared with conventional PLA bottles. The use of the modified clay in PLA bottles was found to lead to an improvement in mechanical and barrier properties. Finally, cytotoxicity tests were carried out with the organo-modified clays using Caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines, with uptake of neutral red as a basal cytotoxicity biomarker. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Sanchez C.,Transport and Logistics Research Institute | Hortal M.,Transport and Logistics Research Institute | Aliaga C.,Transport and Logistics Research Institute | Devis A.,Transport and Logistics Research Institute | Cloquell-Ballester V.A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Waste Management | Year: 2014

Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE-Nanoclay1, PE-CaCO3, PP-Ag, PET-ZnO, PET-Ag, PET-Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET-Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a slight degradation of the polymer, such as increasing pinholes, degradation fumes and elongation at break. Moreover, it should be noted that colour deviations were visible in most of the samples (PE, PP and PET) in levels higher than 0.3 units (limit perceivable by the human eye). The acceptance of these changes in the properties of recycled PE, PP and PET will depend on the specific applications considered (e.g. packaging applications are more strict in material quality that urban furniture or construction products). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Johansson C.,Karlstad University | Bras J.,Grenoble Institute of Technology | Mondragon I.,University of the Basque Country | Nechita P.,Ceprohart SA | And 8 more authors.
BioResources | Year: 2012

This review describes the state-of-the-art of material derived from the forest sector with respect to its potential for use in the packaging industry. Some innovative approaches are highlighted. The aim is to cover recent developments and key challenges for successful introduction of renewable materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material availability and ease of processing are identified as fundamental issues for sustainable utilization of renewable materials.

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