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Lara-Lledo M.,Transport and Logistics Research Center | Lara-Lledo M.,University of Manitoba | Olaimat A.,University of Manitoba | Holley R.A.,University of Manitoba
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

The ability of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes to convert glucosinolates into antimicrobial isothiocyanates was investigated. Mustard glucosinolates in pure (sinigrin) or extract forms (sinigrin, oriental; sinalbin, yellow mustard) were used in broth media and in a polyvinyl polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PPG) packaging film with bologna to examine their value as antimicrobial precursors for the control of L. monocytogenes viability and extension of bologna shelf-life at 4 °C. During broth tests with deodorized (myrosinase-inactivated) mustard extracts (10. d at 20 °C) or with purified sinigrin (21. d at 20 °C) L. monocytogenes was only inhibited when exogenous myrosinase was added. None the less, the organism was able to hydrolyze almost half the pure sinigrin by 21. d in tests without added enzyme. Reductions in sinigrin levels were measured by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and in the absence of L. monocytogenes or added myrosinase the glucosinolate was stable. When pure sinigrin, oriental or yellow mustard extracts were incorporated in PPG films containing 3, 5 and 6% (w/w) of the corresponding glucosinolate and used to package bologna inoculated with 4 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, the pathogen became undetectable in bologna packed with the oriental mustard extract at 52. d storage and remained undetectable at 70. d. The yellow mustard extract was less inhibitory and the pure sinigrin was not antimicrobial. L. monocytogenes numbers reached > 7 log CFU/g in the film and untreated controls at 17. d storage. At 35. d storage, samples packed with control film contained sufficient numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (> 7 log CFU/g) to be considered spoiled, whereas treatments containing mustard or sinigrin remained < 7 log CFU/g LAB for ≤ 70. d. L. monocytogenes played a key role in exerting control over its own viability in bologna by hydrolysis of the glucosinolate in the oriental mustard film, but other antimicrobials in treatments may have contributed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Garcia-Romeu-Martinez M.-A.,Transport and Logistics Research Center | Rouillard V.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Packaging Technology and Science | Year: 2011

This paper presents an alternative method for characterizing the random vibrations produced by transport vehicles. The paper discusses the significance and limitations of the average power spectral density and explains why it is not always adequate as the sole descriptor of road vehicle vibrations as the process generally tends to be non-stationary and non-Gaussian. The paper adopts an alternative analysis method, based on the statistical distribution of the moving root-mean-square (rms) vibrations, as a supplementary indicator of overall ride quality. A variety of sample vibration records, collected from various vehicle types and routes in Spain and Australia, were used to investigate the suitability of various mathematical models, based on the Weibull distribution. It shows that the model can also effectively describe the statistical parameters of the process, namely the mean, median, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. The paper proposes a single mathematical model that can accurately describe the statistical character of the non-stationary random vibrations generated by road vehicles in general. The proposed generic distribution model, based on the Weibull distribution, was developed to afford additional control over various aspects of the shape of the distribution function. The model was found to be general enough to be able to produce a range of well-known distributions. Curve-fitting results using the sum-of-squared error (least squares) optimization were found to produce non-convergent results, which required inclusion of the mean, median, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis in the optimization algorithm. The paper also shows how the model is capable of accurately describing the statistical parameters of the process, namely the mean, median, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. This result is relevant not only for the characterization of ride quality but also for the accurate synthesis of road vehicle vibrations in the laboratory. The results can be used to assist in developing a novel method for simulating non-stationary (modulated) vibration in the laboratory. The rms distribution function can be used to create an rms level schedule that will enable the synthesis of random vibrations with varying rms levels to better represent the road transport vibration process. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Aucejo S.,Transport and Logistics Research Center
Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Natural antimicrobials for innovative and safe packaging (NAFISPACK) project has been initiated to develop innovative packaging solutions for some foodstuffs such as fresh chicken, minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and fresh fish to preserve the food safely during distribution and storage. One of the work plan of NAFISPACK focuses on selecting the natural antimicrobial (NA) substances for target microorganisms, target food and chosen packaging materials. Another plan aims to prepare the developed packaging materials for use in pilot plants in order to be successfully transformed in packages by industrial methods. The next plan studies and defines the appropriate quality parameters that can be followed during storage of the target food products with the new active packages, which provides information related to the effectiveness of new packaging solutions in target fresh foods. Source

Dobon A.,Transport and Logistics Research Center | Cordero P.,Transport and Logistics Research Center | Kreft F.,Wageningen University | Ostergaard S.R.,Danish Technological Institute DTI | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2011

Purpose In recent years, a new perspective for food packaging has emerged as a result of several issues like quality, safety, competitive prices or providing of useful information to consumers. This new perspective is called communicative packaging. Communicative packaging may influence consumers/companies on purchasing decisions. Since the environmental evaluation of such systems has not yet been performed, this paper is focused on the environmental evaluation of a flexible best-before-date (FBBD) communicative device on a packaging consumer unit and its implications on reducing environmental impacts related to fresh products. This consumer unit consists of a nanoclay-based polylactic acid tray filled with pork chops. Methods The environmental assessment of the consumer unit was made through life cycle assessment (LCA) using a cradle-to-gate approach. Environmental impacts were assessed according to the Eco-Indicator 99 v 2.1 methodology in Individualist (I) perspective. Results and discussion Several results were obtained from the LCA. With regard to environmental impacts of the FBBD, most of them were due to the paper substrate used for the manufacture of this communicative packaging concept as well as to the transports for delivering the components of the FBBD communicative device. On the other hand, when environmental impacts of packaging system with and without FBBD were compared, a large environmental load was detected for the system that has the communicative device affixed as a result of the higher weight of the package. However, the environmental load caused by the use of the FBBD was minimal in comparison with the total environmental load of the whole packaging system. On the contrary, the consumer unit that has the communicative device affixed showed less environmental burden than the consumer unit that has not affixed the device. This was due to the environmental benefits that the communicative device provides by reducing the amount of out-of-date packaged products at retailer outlets. Conclusions The use of a FBBD contributes to minimize environmental burdens related to the production, packaging and delivery of pork chops since it facilitates a dynamic control of out-of-date products even though the consumer unit with FBBD weighs 1 g more than the consumer unit that does not use the communicative device. Recommendations The results presented in this paper are estimated results of a specific case study for a prototype of communicative packaging device. Consequently, these results must be considered as a first approach according to future developments on communicative packaging. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Dobon A.,Transport and Logistics Research Center | Cordero P.,Transport and Logistics Research Center | Kreft F.,Wageningen University | Ostergaard S.R.,Danish Technological Institute DTI | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2011

Purpose: This paper is the second part of a two-paper series dealing with the sustainability evaluation of a new communicative packaging concept. The communicative packaging concept includes a device that allows changing the expiry date of the product as function of temperature during transport and storage: a flexible best-before-date (FBBD). Such device was analysed in a consumer unit consisting of a nanoclay-based polylactic acid tray filled with pork chops. Methods: An economic assessment was made through the use of life cycle costing (LCC) methodology proposed by Bovea and Vidal (Resources, Conservation and Recycling Volume 41, Issue 2, May 2004, Pages 133-145) where both internal and external costs were considered. Furthermore, the social aspects were analysed using a contingent valuation (CV) of the willingness to pay (WTP). The sustainability assessment of FBBD was made through the combination of life cycle assessment (LCA) and LCC results, together with the CV of the WTP according to the method proposed by Bovea and Vidal. It was assumed that the use of the FBBD minimizes the food losses from 3.5% to 0.5%. Results and discussion: LCC results show that internal costs related to pork chops and logistic supply chain life cycle represent more than 90% of life cycle cost. The use of FBBD communicative device could increase pork chop selling price between 0.01 and 0.1€ since the purchasing cost of this communicative device is included in this price. WTP results show that FBBD purchasing cost for consumer acceptance is estimated as 0.05€/FBBD. Therefore, only pork chop selling price for scenarios 1 (0.05€/device) and 3 (0.01€/device) could be accepted by consumers. The most sustainable situation is reached when the cost of the FBBD is as less as possible (0.01€). Conclusions: The use of FBBD communicative device has economic advantages for perishable products since it contributes to the increase in the economic savings due to the reduction of food losses. However, these economic savings represent a small percentage over pork chop selling price, and therefore, an FBBD price less than 0.02€/device is required. If a lower price for the communicative device is reached, satisfying the WTP of consumers (0.05€/FBBD), the communicative package will be much more sustainable. Recommendations: It is expected that the competitiveness of FBBD communicative device will be improved in the future. This might be accomplished by reducing FBBD production and distribution costs and increasing their social acceptance, providing more sustainable solutions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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