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Zhang Y.,Nankai University | Wu L.,Nankai University | Zou C.,Nankai University | Jing B.,Nankai University | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Modeling and Assessment | Year: 2017

This paper reports on the development and application of an urban high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory model and decision support system based on the current situation in China and actual vehicle emission control requirements. The system incorporates a user-friendly modular architecture that integrates a vehicle emission model and a decision support platform and includes scenario analysis and visualisation capabilities. A bottom-up approach based on localised emission factors and actual on-road driving condition has been adopted to develop the system. As a case study of application and evaluation, an emission reduction effect analysis of the supposed low-emission zone (LEZ) policy in Beijing (2012) was conducted. According to the simulated results in the forms of tables, histograms and grid maps, the establishment of this LEZ had a definite effect on the emission reduction of various types of air pollutants, especially carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon. In the system, the simulation methodology for identifying environmental benefits brought by the LEZ policy could be used to assess other similar environmental policies. Through flexible modification of configuration values or input data variables, the efficacy of separate or joint policies could be quantifiably evaluated and graphically displayed. © 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Castaings A.,L2EP | Castaings A.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Lhomme W.,L2EP | Trigui R.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Bouscayrol A.,L2EP
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation | Year: 2016

A hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle using supercapacitors and a battery is studied. Using energetic macroscopic representation formalism, an inversion-based control (IBC) can be deduced. A comparison between IBC and two other control schemes is performed within a practical aspect. Simulation and experimental tests with a reduced-scale test bed are provided using a real driving cycle of an electric car. The results point out a more effective behaviour for the IBC than the other control schemes in terms of dynamical response. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016.


Pallas M.-A.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Pallas M.-A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Chatagnon R.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Chatagnon R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 2 more authors.
41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012 | Year: 2012

In relation with traffic restrictions and congestion within cities during daytime hours, the "last kilometer" for goods delivery turns out to be problematic. Hybrid trucks may be a worthwhile solution, especially for activities at very early or late hours. Apart from some noise reduction figures put forward by manufacturers or concerned users, the actual noise benefit of these vehicles is not well known. The present study assesses the noise emission of one hybrid distribution truck, either in hybrid or electric mode, over wide real usage conditions, and compares it to an equivalent full thermic truck. Constant speed pass-bys as well as accelerating or braking phases are tested. Measurement includes third-octave and global standard 7.5 m noise levels, noise source analysis resulting from microphone array processing, and vertical directivity. The truck in hybrid mode comes out to be a little less noisy than the full thermic one at constant speeds, but deteriorates when accelerating, mainly due to drive tire characteristics. The electric mode benefit exceeds 8 dB(A) at low speed, reduces at higher speeds and vanishes beyond 50 km/h. Due to dramatic motor noise reduction, the drive wheel rolling noise becomes then the main noise contributor over the whole usage range. Moreover the electric mode results in lower directivity in upward directions (building storeys).


Chikhi S.,Blida University | Chikhi S.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | Boughedaoui M.,Blida University | Boughedaoui M.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) | Year: 2014

On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO2 were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. © 2014.


PubMed | Transport and Environment Laboratory and Polytechnic School of Algiers
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of environmental sciences (China) | Year: 2014

On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPGs intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPGs performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions.


Castaings A.,University of Lille1 | Castaings A.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Lhomme W.,University of Lille1 | Trigui R.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Bouscayrol A.,University of Lille1
Applied Energy | Year: 2016

The paper deals with real-time energy management strategies for a hybrid energy storage system including a battery and supercapacitor for an electric vehicle. Besides efficiency concerns, a key issue for real-time applications is ensuring safe operations for the considered system. In such a system it is mandatory to limit the supercapacitor voltage by the energy management strategy to comply with efficiency and safety constraints. An optimisation-based strategy (λ-. control) and a rule-based strategy (filtering) are compared in this paper. The active limitation of the supercapacitor voltage is ensured in both strategies. Experimental results show that the two strategies have equivalent performances under real-driving cycles not known in advance. A difference of 2% between the strategies on the battery current root mean square value is shown. By varying the desired supercapacitor voltage range, the results show that the λ- control is better-suited for a high supercapacitor voltage range whereas the filtering gives the best performances for a low supercapacitor voltage range. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Khardi S.,French Institute of Science and Technology for Transport | Khardi S.,Transport and Environment Laboratory
Journal of Aircraft | Year: 2012

Flight-path optimization is designed for minimizing aircraft noise and fuel consumption around airports and for increasing the number of aircraft operations. The main objective of this paper is to provide the optimal flight approach, taking into account noise sources, fuel consumption, constraints, and extreme operational limits of aircraft. This paper introduces a new trajectory generation algorithm based on Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman considerations, taking into account aircraft jet noise. The shortest and fastest continuous descent approach is obtained as an optimal trajectory reducing aircraft noise (6 dB) and fuel consumption (27%to15%). It is a onesegment approach with a soft and short continuous descent, which is better conceived in terms of reduction of environmental impacts of aircraft than the two-segment approach. Results show that this new method is appropriated for aircraft trajectory optimization and could be implemented in avionic systems. It can be interfaced with the in-flight management system respecting constraints of the airspace system regulation and improving its functionalities. Shortest and fastest continuous descent approach could benefit both airlines and communities. It also could be designed for practitioners to understand the implementation of airport management systems. Shortest and fastest continuous descent approach is considered as a strategy to be used for the final approach. It allows one to avoid difficulties of the flight. It can help the flight crew to make timely and correct thrust settings and approach path corrections. Because this study is limited to one noise source for one aircraft, other research is needed to take into account all noise sources of several aircraft.


Castaings A.,University Lille1 | Castaings A.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Lhomme W.,University Lille1 | Trigui R.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Bouscayrol A.,University Lille1
2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014 | Year: 2014

This paper deals with inversion-based control of EVs with Hybrid Energy Storage System based on battery and supercapacitors. Using inversion rules of Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), a systematic control structure can be deduced. However, it points out the possibility of an algebraic loop issue. Furthermore, it may result in computation problems. This paper aims to exhibit some solutions to avoid this problem in an efficient way. © 2014 IEEE.


Castaings A.,University Lille1 | Castaings A.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Lhomme W.,University Lille1 | Trigui R.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Bouscayrol A.,University Lille1
2014 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, VPPC 2014 | Year: 2014

This paper deals with energy management for electric vehicle using SuperCapacitors (SCs) and battery. SCs are connected to the DC bus through a converter whereas battery is directly connected to the DC bus. Using the inversion-based rules of Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), a systematic control structure can be deduced. Some differences can be shown in comparison with classical control schemes. This paper aims to compare a control scheme deduced from EMR and another control structure designed thanks to a more classical way. It can be noticed that some differences appear. As far as the structure is concerned, the number of sensor can be reduced in the EMR case. In terms of performances, some control errors appear in the classical scheme case. © 2014 IEEE.

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