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Transport and, France

Khardi S.,French Institute of Science and Technology for Transport | Khardi S.,Transport and Environment Laboratory
Journal of Aircraft

Flight-path optimization is designed for minimizing aircraft noise and fuel consumption around airports and for increasing the number of aircraft operations. The main objective of this paper is to provide the optimal flight approach, taking into account noise sources, fuel consumption, constraints, and extreme operational limits of aircraft. This paper introduces a new trajectory generation algorithm based on Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman considerations, taking into account aircraft jet noise. The shortest and fastest continuous descent approach is obtained as an optimal trajectory reducing aircraft noise (6 dB) and fuel consumption (27%to15%). It is a onesegment approach with a soft and short continuous descent, which is better conceived in terms of reduction of environmental impacts of aircraft than the two-segment approach. Results show that this new method is appropriated for aircraft trajectory optimization and could be implemented in avionic systems. It can be interfaced with the in-flight management system respecting constraints of the airspace system regulation and improving its functionalities. Shortest and fastest continuous descent approach could benefit both airlines and communities. It also could be designed for practitioners to understand the implementation of airport management systems. Shortest and fastest continuous descent approach is considered as a strategy to be used for the final approach. It allows one to avoid difficulties of the flight. It can help the flight crew to make timely and correct thrust settings and approach path corrections. Because this study is limited to one noise source for one aircraft, other research is needed to take into account all noise sources of several aircraft. Source

Chikhi S.,Blida University | Chikhi S.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | Boughedaoui M.,Blida University | Boughedaoui M.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)

On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO2 were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. © 2014. Source

Castaings A.,University Lille1 | Castaings A.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Castaings A.,A+ Network | Lhomme W.,University Lille1 | And 5 more authors.
2014 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, VPPC 2014

This paper deals with energy management for electric vehicle using SuperCapacitors (SCs) and battery. SCs are connected to the DC bus through a converter whereas battery is directly connected to the DC bus. Using the inversion-based rules of Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), a systematic control structure can be deduced. Some differences can be shown in comparison with classical control schemes. This paper aims to compare a control scheme deduced from EMR and another control structure designed thanks to a more classical way. It can be noticed that some differences appear. As far as the structure is concerned, the number of sensor can be reduced in the EMR case. In terms of performances, some control errors appear in the classical scheme case. © 2014 IEEE. Source

Castaings A.,L2EP | Castaings A.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Castaings A.,A+ Network | Lhomme W.,L2EP | And 5 more authors.
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation

A hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle using supercapacitors and a battery is studied. Using energetic macroscopic representation formalism, an inversion-based control (IBC) can be deduced. A comparison between IBC and two other control schemes is performed within a practical aspect. Simulation and experimental tests with a reduced-scale test bed are provided using a real driving cycle of an electric car. The results point out a more effective behaviour for the IBC than the other control schemes in terms of dynamical response. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016. Source

Castaings A.,University Lille1 | Castaings A.,Transport and Environment Laboratory | Castaings A.,A+ Network | Lhomme W.,University Lille1 | And 5 more authors.
2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014

This paper deals with inversion-based control of EVs with Hybrid Energy Storage System based on battery and supercapacitors. Using inversion rules of Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), a systematic control structure can be deduced. However, it points out the possibility of an algebraic loop issue. Furthermore, it may result in computation problems. This paper aims to exhibit some solutions to avoid this problem in an efficient way. © 2014 IEEE. Source

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