Transponics

Jacobus, PA, United States

Transponics

Jacobus, PA, United States

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Sato N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Sabzevari H.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Fu S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Ju W.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 4 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

IL-15 has growth-promoting effects on select lymphoid subsets, including natural killer (NK) cells, NK T cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), CD8 T cells, and γδ-T cells. Constitutive expression of murine IL-15 in IL-15-transgenic mice was reported to cause T-NK leukemia. We investigated whether IL-15 expression is sufficient for leukemic transformation using a human IL-15-transgenic (IL-15Tg) mouse model. We noted that 100% of the mice observed over a 2-year period (n > 150) developed fatal expansions of CD8 T cells with NK markers, and determined that these cells expressed IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα). The expression of IL-15Rα on CD8 T cells appears to be required for uncontrolled aggressive lymphoproliferation, because none of the IL-15Rα -/--IL-15Tg mice that we followed for more than 2 years developed the fatal disease despite controlled expansion of CD8 T cells. In addition, in contrast to IL-15Tg mice, in which leukemia-like CD8 T cells expressed IL-15Rα persistently, acutely activated normal CD8 T cells only transiently expressed IL-15Rα. Inhibition of DNA methylation enabled sustained IL-15Riv expression induced by activation. We present a scenario for IL-15Tg mice in which CD8 T cells that acquire constitutive persistent IL-15Rα expression are at a selective advantage and become founder cells, outgrow other lymphocytes, and lead to the establishment of a leukemia-like condition. Copyright 2011 by The American Society of Hematology; all rights reserved.


Yu P.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Petrus M.N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Ju W.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Zhang M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2015

Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1. There is no accepted curative therapy for ATL. We have reported that certain ATL patients have increased Notch-1 signaling along with constitutive activation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway. Physical and functional interaction between these two pathways provides the rationale to combine the γ-secretase inhibitor compound E with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Moreover, romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has demonstrated major antitumor action in leukemia/lymphoma. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the single agents and the combination of these agents in a murine model of human ATL, the MT-1 model. Single and double agents inhibited tumor growth as monitored by tumor size (P<0.05), and prolonged survival of leukemia-bearing mice (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The combination of three agents significantly enhanced the antitumor efficacy as assessed by tumor size, tumor markers in the serum (human soluble interleukin-2 receptor-α and β2-microglobulin) and survival of the MT-1 tumor-bearing mice, compared with all other treatment groups (P<0.05). Improved therapeutic efficacy obtained by combining compound E, bortezomib and romidepsin supports a clinical trial of this combination in the treatment of ATL. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Chen J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Petrus M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bryant B.R.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Nguyen V.P.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 5 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010

Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a heterogeneous disease, can be divided into smoldering, chronic, lymphoma, and acute types clinically. In addition to different clinical manifestations, different stages of ATL have different molecular signatures. Here, we demonstrated that smoldering/chronic ATL peripheral blood mononuclear cells spontaneously proliferated ex vivo in a cytokine (interleukin-12 [IL-12]/IL-9/IL-15)-dependent manner, while acute-type ATL peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not proliferate or proliferated independent of cytokines. Smoldering/chronic ATL cells produced IL-2 and IL-9 in 6-day ex vivo cultures. Interestingly, the addition of an anti-IL-2R-α monoclonal antibody profoundly inhibited IL-9 expression, suggesting optimal expression of IL-9 was dependent on IL-2 signaling in these patients. To determine whether there would be autonomous proliferation of ATL leukemic cells, we purified leukemic cells from patients with smoldering/chronic ATL. Purified leukemic cells cultured alone produced IL-2/IL-9, and the downstream Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway was activated. However, the leukemic cells did not proliferate independently, but required coculture with autologous monocytes to induce proliferation. Moreover, interaction between leukemic cells and monocytes was contact dependent, and major histocompatibility complex class II expression may have contributed to this interaction. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that there is autocrine/paracrine cytokine stimulation of leukemic cell proliferation in patients with smoldering/chronic ATL that could be targeted for treatment.


Chen J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Petrus M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bamford R.,Transponics | Shih J.H.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 3 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a clonal lymphoproliferative disease of mature T and natural killer cells. The etiology of LGL leukemia is unknown. IL-15 is an inflammatory cytokine that stimulates T and natural killer cells and is critical for their survival and proliferation. IL-15 signals through a heterotrimeric receptor that is composed of a private receptor, IL-15Rα and IL-2/IL-15Rβ and γ c shared with IL-2. Using a newly developed assay, we demonstrated increased levels of soluble IL-15Rα in the serum of patients with T-LGL leukemia. Furthermore, IL-15Rα mRNA levels were also up-regulated in the PBMCs of these patients. FACS analysis indicated that IL-15Rα was expressed both on monocytes as well as on some CD8 + leukemic cells of the patients. Interestingly, themRNA levels of IFN-α, a known inducer of IL-15Rα, were also up-regulated in patients' PBMCs. Moreover, PBMCs of some T-LGL patients proliferated at higher levels in response to exogenously added IL-15 compared with those of normal donors. In summary, our study demonstrated increased expression of IL-15Rα in T-LGL leukemia. It is conceivable that higher IL-15Rα expression may lower IL-15 response threshold in vivo and, therefore, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease.


Yu P.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bamford R.N.,Transponics | Waldmann T.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2014

Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is an inflammatory cytokine whose role in autoimmune diseases has not been fully elucidated. Th17 cells have been shown to play critical roles in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models. In this study, we demonstrate that blockade of IL-15 signaling by TMβ-1 mAb treatment aggravated EAE severity. The key mechanism was not NK-cell depletion but depletion of CD8+CD122+ T cells. Adoptive transfer of exogenous CD8+CD122+ T cells to TMβ-1-treated mice rescued animals from severe disease. Moreover, transfer of preactivated CD8+CD122+ T cells prevented EAE development and significantly reduced IL-17 secretion. Naïve effector CD4+CD25- T cells cultured with either CD8+CD122+ T cells from wild-type mice or IL-15 transgenic mice displayed lower frequencies of IL-17A production with lower amounts of IL-17 in the supernatants when compared with production by effector CD4+CD25- T cells cultured alone. Addition of a neutralizing antibody to IL-10 led to recovery of IL-17A production in Th17 cultures. Furthermore, coculture of CD8+CD122+ T cells with effector CD4+ T cells inhibited their proliferation significantly, suggesting a regulatory function for IL-15 dependent CD8+CD122+ T cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that IL-15, acting through CD8+CD122+ T cells, has a negative regulatory role in reducing IL-17 production and Th17-mediated EAE inflammation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | Transponics, Kyoto University and U.S. National Cancer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Leukemia | Year: 2015

Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1. There is no accepted curative therapy for ATL. We have reported that certain ATL patients have increased Notch-1 signaling along with constitutive activation of the nuclear factor-B pathway. Physical and functional interaction between these two pathways provides the rationale to combine the -secretase inhibitor compound E with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Moreover, romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has demonstrated major antitumor action in leukemia/lymphoma. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the single agents and the combination of these agents in a murine model of human ATL, the MT-1 model. Single and double agents inhibited tumor growth as monitored by tumor size (P<0.05), and prolonged survival of leukemia-bearing mice (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The combination of three agents significantly enhanced the antitumor efficacy as assessed by tumor size, tumor markers in the serum (human soluble interleukin-2 receptor- and 2-microglobulin) and survival of the MT-1 tumor-bearing mice, compared with all other treatment groups (P<0.05). Improved therapeutic efficacy obtained by combining compound E, bortezomib and romidepsin supports a clinical trial of this combination in the treatment of ATL.


PubMed | National Health Research Institute, Transponics, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research and U.S. National Institutes of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2016

Despite relative success of therapy for Hodgkins lymphoma (HL), novel therapeutic agents are needed for patients with refractory or relapsed disease. Recently, anti-PD1 immunotherapy or treatment with the anti-CD30 toxin conjugate brentuximab vedotin (BV) have been associated with remissions; however, the median responses of complete responses (CRs) with the latter were only 6.7 mo. To obtain curative therapy, other effective agents, based on HL biology, would have to be given in combination with BV. Hodgkins Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells secrete cytokines including IL-6 and -13, leading to constitutive activation of JAK/STAT signaling. In the present study the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT6 and expression of c-Myc in the HL cell line HDLM-2. These changes were enhanced when, on the basis of a matrix screen of drug combinations, ruxolitinib was combined with the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor Navitoclax. The combination augmented expression of Bik, Puma, and Bax, and attenuated Bcl-xL expression and the phosphorylation of Bad. The use of the two-agent combination of either ruxolitinib or Navitoclax with BV or the three-agent combination strongly activated Bax and increased activities of cytochrome c and caspase-9 and -3 that, in turn, led to cleavage of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase and Mcl-1. Either ruxolitinib combined with Navitoclax or BV alone prolonged survival but did not cure HDLM-2 tumor-bearing mice, whereas BV combined with ruxolitinib and/or with Navitoclax resulted in a sustained, complete elimination of the HDLM-2 HL. These studies provide scientific support for a clinical trial to evaluate BV combined with ruxolitinib in select patients with HL.


PubMed | National Health Research Institute, Transponics, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Kyoto University and U.S. National Institutes of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) develops in individuals infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1). Presently there is no curative therapy for ATL. HTLV-1-encoded protein Tax (transactivator from the X-gene region) up-regulates Bcl-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large) expression and activates interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-9, and IL-15 autocrine/paracrine systems, resulting in amplified JAK/STAT signaling. Inhibition of JAK signaling reduces cytokine-dependent ex vivo proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from ATL patients in smoldering/chronic stages. Currently, two JAK inhibitors are approved for human use. In this study, we examined activity of multiple JAK inhibitors in ATL cell lines. The selective JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib was examined in a high-throughput matrix screen combined with >450 potential therapeutic agents, and Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor navitoclax was identified as a strong candidate for multicomponent therapy. The combination was noted to strongly activate BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein), effect mitochondrial depolarization, and increase caspase 3/7 activities that lead to cleavage of PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) and Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukemia 1). Ruxolitinib and navitoclax independently demonstrated modest antitumor efficacy, whereas the combination dramatically lowered tumor burden and prolonged survival in an ATL murine model. This combination strongly blocked ex vivo proliferation of five ATL patients PBMCs. These studies provide support for a therapeutic trial in patients with smoldering/chronic ATL using a drug combination that inhibits JAK signaling and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL.


Nguyen V.-P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chen J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Petrus M.N.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Goldman C.K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Innate Immunity | Year: 2014

Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (IFN-β) factor (TRIF) is a key adaptor for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR4 signaling. Using a novel cDNA isolate encoding a TRIF protein with a 21-residue deletion (Δ160-181) from its amino-terminal half, we investigated the impact of this deletion on TRIF functions. Transfection studies consistently showed higher expression levels of the (Δ160-181) TRIF compared to wild-type (wt) TRIF, an effect unrelated to apoptosis, cell lines or plasmid amplification. Colocalization of wt and (Δ160-181) TRIF proteins led to a dramatic reduction of their respective expressions, suggesting that wt/(Δ160-181) TRIF heterocomplexes are targeted for degradation. We demonstrated that wt TRIF associates with tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) better than (Δ160-181) TRIF, culminating in its greater ubiquitination and proteolysis. This explains, in part, the differential expression levels of the two TRIF proteins. Despite higher expression levels in transfected cells, (Δ160-181) TRIF inefficiently transactivated the IFN pathway, whereas the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway activation remained similar to that by wt TRIF. In coexpression studies, (Δ160-181) TRIF marginally contributed to the IFN pathway activation, but still enhanced NF-κB signaling with wt TRIF. Therefore, this 21 amino acid sequence is crucial for TRAF3 association, modulation of TRIF stability and activation of the IFN pathway. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.


The invention relates to a novel buffer formulation that is able to reduce reaction time compared to conventional LAMP buffer and may be universally applied to other LAMP reactions with little optimization required. The invention also relates to a modified LAMP method making use of the novel buffer and may incorporate SNP-discriminating forward loop primers to enhance the LAMP reaction while also reducing the likelihood of false-positives.

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