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Arpaia E.,Campbell University | Arpaia E.,University of Toronto | Blaser H.,Campbell University | Quintela-Fandino M.,Campbell University | And 17 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2012

Proteins containing a caveolin-binding domain (CBD), such as the Rho-GTPases, can interact with caveolin-1 (Cav1) through its caveolin scaffold domain. Rho-GTPases are important regulators of p130 Cas, which is crucial for both normal cell migration and Src kinase-mediated metastasis of cancer cells. However, although Rho-GTPases (particularly RhoC) and Cav1 have been linked to cancer progression and metastasis, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. To investigate the function of Cav1-Rho-GTPase interaction in metastasis, we disrupted Cav1-Rho-GTPase binding in melanoma and mammary epithelial tumor cells by overexpressing CBD, and examined the loss-of-function of RhoC in metastatic cancer cells. Cancer cells overexpressing CBD or lacking RhoC had reduced p130 Cas phosphorylation and Rac1 activation, resulting in an inhibition of migration and invasion in vitro. The activity of Src and the activation of its downstream targets FAK, Pyk2, Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 were also impaired. A reduction in α5-integrin expression, which is required for binding to fibronectin and thus cell migration and survival, was observed in CBD-expressing cells and cells lacking RhoC. As a result of these defects, CBD-expressing melanoma cells had a reduced ability to metastasize in recipient mice, and impaired extravasation and survival in secondary sites in chicken embryos. Our data indicate that interaction between Cav1 and Rho-GTPases (most likely RhoC but not RhoA) promotes metastasis by stimulating α5-integrin expression and regulating the Src-dependent activation of p130 Cas/Rac1, FAK/Pyk2 and Ras/Erk1/2 signaling cascades. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Leong H.S.,Translational Prostate Cancer Research Group | Steinmetz N.F.,University of California at San Diego | Steinmetz N.F.,Scripps Research Institute | Ablack A.,Translational Prostate Cancer Research Group | And 6 more authors.
Nature Protocols | Year: 2010

Viral nanoparticles are a novel class of biomolecular agents that take advantage of the natural circulatory and targeting properties of viruses to allow the development of therapeutics, vaccines and imaging tools. We have developed a multivalent nanoparticle platform based on the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) that facilitates particle labeling at high density with fluorescent dyes and other functional groups. Compared with other technologies, CPMV-based viral nanoparticles are particularly suited for long-term intravital vascular imaging because of their biocompatibility and retention in the endothelium with minimal side effects. The stable, long-term labeling of the endothelium allows the identification of vasculature undergoing active remodeling in real time. In this study, we describe the synthesis, purification and fluorescent labeling of CPMV nanoparticles, along with their use for imaging of vascular structure and for intravital vascular mapping in developmental and tumor angiogenesis models. Dye-labeled viral nanoparticles can be synthesized and purified in a single day, and imaging studies can be conducted over hours, days or weeks, depending on the application. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Leong H.S.,Translational Prostate Cancer Research Group | Robertson A.E.,Translational Prostate Cancer Research Group | Stoletov K.,University of Alberta | Leith S.J.,Translational Prostate Cancer Research Group | And 12 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2014

Tumor cell extravasation is a key step during cancer metastasis, yet the precise mechanisms that regulate this dynamic process are unclear. We utilized a high-resolution time-lapse intravital imaging approach to visualize the dynamics of cancer cell extravasation invivo. During intravascular migration, cancer cells form protrusive structures identified as invadopodia by their enrichment of MT1-MMP, cortactin, Tks4, and importantly Tks5, which localizes exclusively toinvadopodia. Cancer cells extend invadopodia through the endothelium into the extravascular stroma prior to their extravasation at endothelial junctions. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of invadopodia initiation (cortactin), maturation (Tks5), or function (Tks4) resulted in an abrogation of cancer cell extravasation and metastatic colony formation in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. This provides direct evidence of a functional role for invadopodia during cancer cell extravasation and distant metastasis and reveals an opportunity for therapeutic intervention in this clinically important process. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Goulet B.,Translational Prostate Cancer Research Group | Chan G.,University of Montreal | Chambers A.F.,London Regional Cancer Program | Chambers A.F.,University of Western Ontario | And 2 more authors.
Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Maspin, a member of the serpin family of serine protease inhibitors, was originally identified as a tumor suppressor that is expressed in normal mammary epithelial cells but is reduced or absent in breast carcinomas. Early enthusiasm for maspin as a biomarker for disease progression has been tempered by clinical data that associates maspin with favourable outcomes in some studies and poor prognosis in others. Here, we review all of the published clinical studies for maspin in breast and ovarian cancers and propose that the apparent discordance between clinical reports is a consequence of differential cellular distribution of maspin. Indeed, it was thought that an extracellular pool of maspin possessed tumor suppressor activity, acting by inhibiting migration and increasing cell adhesion. Recent evidence from our group and others indicates, however, that the nuclear localization of maspin in cancer cells is necessary for its tumor suppressor activity. We provide additional data here to demonstrate that nuclear-localized maspin binds to chromatin and is required to effectively prevent cells from metastasizing. Our knowledge of other serpins that localize to the nucleus should help to inform future studies of nuclear maspin. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating the localization and activities of maspin should pave the way for the development of improved diagnostics and therapies for cancer. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

Steinmetz N.F.,Scripps Research Institute | Steinmetz N.F.,Case Western Reserve University | Ablack A.L.,Translational Prostate Cancer Research Group | Hickey J.L.,University of Western Ontario | And 5 more authors.
Small | Year: 2011

Multivalent nanoparticles have several key advantages in terms of solubility, binding avidity, and uptake, making them particularly well suited to molecular imaging applications. Herein is reported the stepwise synthesis and characterization of NIR viral nanoparticles targeted to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors that are over-expressed in human prostate cancers. The pan-bombesin analogue, [β-Ala11, Phe13, Nle14]bombesin-(7-14), is conjugated to cowpea mosaic virus particles functionalized with an NIR dye (Alexa Fluor 647) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) using the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Targeting and uptake in human PC-3 prostate cells is demonstrated in vitro. Tumor homing is observed using human prostate tumor xenografts on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model using intravital imaging. Further development of this viral nanoparticle platform may open the door to potential clinical noninvasive molecular imaging strategies. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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