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Brooks J.D.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Teraoka S.N.,University of Florida | Malone K.E.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Bernstein L.,Beckman Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics | Year: 2013

Tamoxifen has been shown to greatly reduce risk of recurrence and contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Still, second primary contralateral breast cancer is the most common malignancy to follow a first primary breast cancer. Genetic variants in CYP2D6 and other drug-metabolizing enzymes that alter the metabolism of tamoxifen may be associated with CBC risk in women who receive the drug. This is the first study to investigate the impact of this variation on risk of CBC in women who receive tamoxifen. From the population-based Women's Environment Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study, we included 624 Caucasian women with CBC (cases) and 1,199 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls) with complete information on tumor characteristics and treatment. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the risk of CBC associated with 112 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 genes involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen among tamoxifen users and non-users. After adjustment for multiple testing, no significant association was observed between any of the genotyped variants and CBC risk in either tamoxifen users or non-users. These results suggest that when using a tagSNP approach, common variants in selected genes involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen are not associated with risk of CBC among women treated with the drug.


Kim J.,Korea University | Kim B.C.,Institute Pasteur Korea | Lopez-Ferrer D.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Petritis K.,Translational Genomic Research Institute | Smith R.D.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Proteomics | Year: 2010

The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in bottom-up proteomic analyses. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, many efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for 1 year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce approaches for protein digestion under unconventional energy input for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches. & 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.


Alpert A.J.,PolyLC Inc. | Petritis K.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Petritis K.,Translational Genomic Research Institute | Kangas L.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | And 8 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Here we demonstrate that separation of proteolytic peptides, having the same net charge and one basic residue, is affected by their specific orientation toward the stationary phase in ion-exchange chromatography. In electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) with an anion-exchange material, the C-terminus of the peptides is, on average, oriented toward the stationary phase. In cation exchange, the average peptide orientation is the opposite. Data with synthetic peptides, serving as orientation probes, indicate that in tryptic/Lys-C peptides the C-terminal carboxyl group appears to be in a zwitterionic bond with the side chain of the C-terminal Lys/Arg residue. In effect, the side chain is then less basic than the N-terminus, accounting for the specific orientation of tryptic and Lys-C peptides. Analyses of larger sets of peptides, generated from lysates by either Lys-N, Lys-C, or trypsin, reveal that specific peptide orientation affects the ability of charged side chains, such as phosphate residues, to influence retention. Phosphorylated residues that are remote in the sequence from the binding site affect retention less than those that are closer. When a peptide contains multiple charged sites, then orientation is observed to be less rigid and retention tends to be governed by the peptides net charge rather than its sequence. These general observations could be of value in confirming a peptides identification and, in particular, phosphosite assignments in proteomics analyses. More generally, orientation accounts for the ability of chromatography to separate peptides of the same composition but different sequence. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Lopez-Ferrer D.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Petritis K.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Petritis K.,Translational Genomic Research Institute | Robinson E.W.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | And 9 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2011

Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a Re-Play configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Yerges-Armstrong L.M.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Yau M.S.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Liu Y.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Krishnan S.,Translational Genomic Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2014

Osteoarthritis (OA) risk is widely recognized to be heritable but few loci have been identified. Observational studies have identified higher systemic bone mineral density (BMD) to be associated with an increased risk of radiographic knee osteoarthritis. With this in mind, we sought to evaluate whether well-established genetic loci for variance in BMD are associated with risk for radiographic OA in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Johnston County Osteoarthritis (JoCo) Project. Cases had at least one knee with definite radiographic OA, defined as the presence of definite osteophytes with or without joint space narrowing (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] grade ≥ 2) and controls were absent for definite radiographic OA in both knees (KL grade ≤ 1 bilaterally). There were 2014 and 658 Caucasian cases, respectively, in the OAI and JoCo Studies, and 953 and 823 controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified for association analysis from the literature. Genotyping was carried out on Illumina 2.5M and 1M arrays in Genetic Components of Knee OA (GeCKO) and JoCo, respectively and imputation was done. Association analyses were carried out separately in each cohort with adjustments for age, body mass index (BMI), and sex, and then parameter estimates were combined across the two cohorts by meta-analysis. We identified four SNPs significantly associated with prevalent radiographic knee OA. The strongest signal (p= 0.0009; OR= 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08-1.37) maps to 12q3, which contains a gene coding for SP7. Additional loci map to 7p14.1 (TXNDC3), 11q13.2 (LRP5), and 11p14.1 (LIN7C). For all four loci the allele associated with higher BMD was associated with higher odds of OA. A BMD risk allele score was not significantly associated with OA risk. This meta-analysis demonstrates that several genomewide association studies (GWAS)-identified BMD SNPs are nominally associated with prevalent radiographic knee OA and further supports the hypothesis that BMD, or its determinants, may be a risk factor contributing to OA development. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Leroy E.C.,Arizona Cancer Center | Moore J.H.,Computational Genetics Laboratory | Hu C.,University of Arizona | Martinez M.E.,University of Arizona | And 6 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2011

Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) genes are implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Gene-by-gene interactions that influence the insulin/IGF pathways were hypothesized as modifiers of colorectal neoplasia risk. We built a classification tree to detect interactions in 18 IGF and insulin pathway-related genes and metachronous colorectal neoplasia among 1,439 subjects pooled from two chemoprevention trials. The probability of colorectal neoplasia was greatest (71.8%) among carriers of any A allele for rs7166348 (IGF1R) and AA genotype for rs1823023 (PIK3R1). In contrast, carriers of any A at rs7166348 (IGF1R), any G for the PIK3R1 variant, and AA for rs10426094 (INSR) had the lowest probability (14.3%). Logistic regression modeling showed that any A at rs7166348 (IGF1R) with the AA genotype at rs1823023 (PIK3R1) conferred the highest odds of colorectal neoplasia (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.2-6.5), compared with carriage of GG at rs7166348 (IGF1R). Conversely, any A at rs7166348 (IGFR1), any G allele at rs1823023 (PIK3R1), and the AA genotype at rs10426094 (INSR) conferred the lowest odds (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.07-0.66). Stratifying the analysis by parent study and intervention arm showed highly consistent trends in direction and magnitude of associations, with preliminary evidence of genotype effects on measured IGF-1 levels in a subgroup of subjects. These results were compared to those from multifactor dimensionality reduction, which identified different single nucleotide polymorphisms in the same genes (INSR and IGF1R) as effect modifiers for colorectal neoplasia. These results support a role for genetic interactions in the insulin/IGF pathway genes in colorectal neoplasia risk. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Gatalica Z.,Caris Life science | Snyder C.,Creighton University | Maney T.,Caris Life science | Ghazalpour A.,Caris Life science | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2014

Cancer cells expressing PD-1 ligands (PD-L1/PD-L2) inhibit immune-modulatory T-cell activation facilitating disease progression. Preliminary clinical trials exploring interruption of PD-1/PD-L1 signaling showed benefit in several cancer types. We analyzed the distribution of PD-1-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and cancer cells' expression of PD-L1 in a molecularly profiled cohort of 437 malignancies (380 carcinomas, 33 sarcomas, and 24 melanomas). We showed that the presence of PD-1+ TILs significantly varied among cancer types (from 0% in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas to 93% in ovarian cancer), and was generally associated with the increased number of mutations in tumor cells (P = 0.029). Cancer cell expression of PD-L1 varied from absent (in Merkel cell carcinomas) to 100% (in chondro- and liposarcomas), but showed the inverse association with the number of detected mutations (P = 0.004). Both PD-1 and PD-L1 expression were significantly higher in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) than in non-TNBC (P < 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). Similarly, MSI-H colon cancers had higher PD-1 and PD-L1 expression than the micro-satellite stable tumors (P = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively). TP53-mutated breast cancers had significantly higher PD-1 positivity than those harboring other driver mutations (e.g., PIK3CA; P = 0.002). In non-small cell lung cancer, PD-1/PD-L1 coexpression was identified in 8 cases (19%), which lacked any other targetable alterations (e.g., EGFR, ALK, or ROS1). Our study demonstrated the utility of exploring the expression of two potentially targetable immune checkpoint proteins (PD-1/PD-L1) in a substantial proportion of solid tumors, including some aggressive subtypes that lack other targeted treatment modalities. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.


Jain M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Zhang L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Boufraqech M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Liu-Chittenden Y.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Several members of the zinc finger protein family have been recently shown to have a role in cancer initiation and progression. Zinc finger protein 367 (ZNF367) is a member of the zinc finger protein family and is expressed in embryonic or fetal erythroid tissue but is absent in normal adult tissue. Methodology/Principal Findings: We show that ZNF367 is overexpressed in adrenocortical carcinoma, malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and thyroid cancer as compared to normal tissue and benign tumors. Using both functional knockdown and ectopic overexpression in multiple cell lines, we show that ZNF367 inhibits cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and adhesion to extracellular proteins in vitro and in vivo. Integrated gene and microRNA expression analyses showed an inverse correlation between ZNF367 and miR-195 expression. Luciferase assays demonstrated that miR-195 directly regulates ZNF367 expression and that miR-195 regulates cellular invasion. Moreover, integrin alpha 3 (ITGA3) expression was regulated by ZNF367. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings taken together suggest that ZNF367 regulates cancer progression.


Gatalica Z.,Caris Life science | Millis S.Z.,Caris Life science | Vranic S.,University of Sarajevo | Bender R.,Caris Life science | And 3 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

Background: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) accounts for approximately 3% of all malignancies. Despite extensive laboratory and imaging efforts, the primary site usually cannot be unequivocally confirmed, and the treatment for the most part remains empirical. Recently, identification of common cancer pathway alterations in diverse cancer lineages has offered an opportunity to provide targeted therapies for patients with CUP, irrespective of the primary site. Patients and Methods: 1806 cancers of unknown primary were identified among more than 63,000 cases profiled at Caris Life Sciences. Multiplatform profiling of the tumor samples included immunohistochemistry, gene sequencing and in situ hybridization methods in an effort to identify changes in biomarkers that are predictive of drug responses. Results: Biomarkers associated with a potential drug benefit were identified in 96% of cases. Biomarkers identified included those associated with potential benefit in nearly all classes of approved cancer drugs (cytotoxic, hormonal, targeted biological drugs). Additionally, biomarkers associated with a potential lack of benefit were identified in numerous cases, which could further refine the management of patients with CUP. Conclusion: Comprehensive biomarker profiling of CUP may provide additional choices in treatment of patients with these difficult to treat malignancies.


Zhang D.,University of Chicago | Cheng L.,University of Chicago | Craig D.W.,Translational Genomic Research Institute | Redman M.,Translational Genomic Research Institute | Liu C.,University of Chicago
Behavior Genetics | Year: 2010

We tested whether telomere length is altered in the brains of patients diagnosed with major depression (MD), bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) by measuring mean telomere length (mTL) with real-time PCR. The samples are cerebellar gray matter from 46 SZ, 46 BP, and 15 MD patients, and 48 healthy controls. We found no difference in mTL between SZ and controls, BD and controls, MD and controls, or all cases and controls; no correlation between mTL and age was observed, either. This suggests that brain gray matter is unlikely to be related to the telomere length shortening reported in blood of psychiatric patients. White matter deserves further investigation as it has been reported to have a different mTL dynamic from gray matter. Since mTL has been reported to be a heritable quantitative trait, we also carried out genome-wide mapping of genetic factors for mTL, treating mTL as a quantitative trait. No association survived correction of multiple testing for the number of SNPs studied. The previously reported rs2630578 (BICD1) association was not replicated. This suggests that telomere length of cerebellar gray matter is determined by multiple loci with "weak effects." © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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