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Lutz J.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | Lutz J.,Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification | Blawert C.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Mandl S.,Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2011

Surface treatment of medical CoCr alloys L605 by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) leads to the formation of a hard and wear resistant surface layer, consisting of nitrogen in solid solution. However, a detailed investigation of the corrosion properties by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that even at processing temperatures of 350°C, where no CrN precipitates are observed, no complete passivation of the surface by formation of a protective Cr2O3 layer is possible leading to enhanced corrosion rates further increasing with increasing PIII processing temperature. It is postulated that the enhanced affinity of chromium for nitrogen leads to a reduced mobility inside the alloy, thus prohibiting a timely surface passivation. Nevertheless, a surface modification where a moderate decrease in corrosion resistance coupled with a significant reduction in generated wear particles should be feasible for biomedical applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Christ B.,Applied Molecular Hepatology Laboratory | Christ B.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | Stock P.,Applied Molecular Hepatology Laboratory
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2012

Mesenchymal stem cells represent an alternate cell source to substitute for primary hepa- tocytes in hepatocyte transplantation because of their multiple differentiation potential and nearly unlimited availability. They may differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and maintain specific hepatocyte functions also after transplantation into the regenerat- ing livers of mice or rats both under injury and non-injury conditions. Depending on the underlying liver disease their mode of action is either to replace the diseased liver tissue or to support liver regeneration through their anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic as well as their pro-proliferative action. © 2012 Christ and Stock.


Wagner D.-C.,Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology | Riegelsberger U.M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology | Michalk S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology | Hartig W.,University of Leipzig | And 3 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2011

Cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) is well known as an executioner protease of apoptosis following brain ischemia. However, an increasing body of evidence suggests several non-apoptotic functions of CC3. To improve our understanding of the relation between cell death-related and non-adverse effects of postischemic caspase-3 activation, we examined the spatiotemporal distribution and identity of CC3-positive cells at days 2, 3 and 4 after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. The lacking colocalization of CC3 and TUNEL staining indicated, that CC3 expression was predominantly non-apoptotic. Nuclear CC3 expression was frequently found to be colocalized with GFAP-positive astrocytes within the tissue adjacent to the infarct, whereas cytoplasmatic CC3 expression occurred solely in the lesion. Multiple fluorescence labeling revealed costaining of cytoplasmatic CC3 with markers directed against astrocytes, macrophages/microglia and supposedly pericytes. Our findings suggest that CC3 expression was predominantly associated with cellular responses to stroke such as reactive astrogliosis and the infiltration of macrophages. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Posel C.,Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology | Moller K.,Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology | Frohlich W.,Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology | Frohlich W.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) are widely used in regenerative medicine, but recent data suggests that the isolation of BMNCs by commonly used Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation (DGC) causes significant cell loss and influences graft function. The objective of this study was to determine in an animal study whether and how Ficoll-Paque DGC affects the yield and composition of BMNCs compared to alternative isolation methods such as adjusted Percoll DGC or immunomagnetic separation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Each isolation procedure was confounded by a significant loss of BMNCs that was maximal after Ficoll-Paque DGC, moderate after adjusted Percoll DGC and least after immunomagnetic PMN depletion (25.6±5.8%, 51.5±2.3 and 72.3±6.7% recovery of total BMNCs in lysed bone marrow). Interestingly, proportions of BMNC subpopulations resembled those of lysed bone marrow indicating symmetric BMNC loss independent from the isolation protocol. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) content, determined by colony-forming units for granulocytes-macrophages (CFU-GM), was significantly reduced after Ficoll-Paque DGC compared to Percoll DGC and immunomagnetic PMN depletion. Finally, in a proof-of-concept study, we successfully applied the protocol for BMNC isolation by immunodepletion to fresh human bone marrow aspirates. Our findings indicate that the common method to isolate BMNCs in both preclinical and clinical research can be considerably improved by replacing Ficoll-Paque DGC with adapted Percoll DGC, or particularly by immunodepletion of PMNs. © 2012 Pösel et al.


Weise G.,University of Würzburg | Weise G.,Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology | Weise G.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | Stoll G.,University of Würzburg
Frontiers in Neurology | Year: 2012

Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood nerve barrier (BNB) preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate.We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf) allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) and perfluorocarbons enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage) infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients. © 2012 Weise and Stoll.


Christ B.,University of Leipzig | Christ B.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | Bruckner S.,University of Leipzig
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2012

Without therapeutic intervention acute liver failure (ALF) is the consequence of a progredient destruction of the liver parenchyma due to metabolic exhaustion of the hepatocytes. Perivenous hepatocytes are responsible for the detoxification of noxious compounds via the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Liver transplantation is the only remaining therapeutic option in the end-stage of the disease. Assuming that metabolic capacity could be provided by healthy hepatocytes and thus substitute for the genuine parenchymal cells hepatocyte transplantation since quite some time is considered to be an alternative to whole liver transplantation. While this hypothesis achieved proof-of-concept in animal trials clinical breakthrough is still awaiting success, the reasons of which are ongoing matter of debate. In recent times mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) came into focus as a transplantable cell source to treat ALF. Interestingly, as demonstrated in various rodent animal models their mode of action is rather based on trophic support of hepatocytes remaining in the damaged host parenchyma rather than substitution of tissue loss. Mechanistically, either direct or indirect paracrine effects from the transplanted cells acting pro-proliferative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory seem to trigger the regenerative response of the residual healthy hepatocytes in the otherwise lethally injured liver parenchyma. Thus, allogeneic MSC may be the best choice for the treatment of ALF taking advantage of their short-term benefit to sustain the critical phase of the acute insult avoiding long-term immunosuppression. © 2012 Christ and Brückner.


Bruckner S.,University of Leipzig | Tautenhahn H.-M.,University of Leipzig | Tautenhahn H.-M.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | Winkler S.,University of Leipzig | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2014

Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention in the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The hepatocyte differentiation of porcine adipose tissue-derived MSC was shown for the first time yielding hepatocyte-like cells with specific functions similar in bone marrow and subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. That makes them good pre-clinical candidates for supportive approaches after liver resection in the pig. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Zschaler J.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | Schlorke D.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | Arnhold J.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine
Critical reviews in immunology | Year: 2014

Mouse strains are frequently used to model human disease states, to test the efficiency of drugs and therapeutic principles. However, the direct translation of murine experimental data to human pathological events often fails due to sufficient differences in the organization of the immune system of both species. Here we give a short overview of the principle differences between mice and humans in defense strategies against pathogens and mechanisms involved in response to pathogenic microorganisms and other activators of the immune system. While in human blood mechanisms of immune resistance are highly prevailed, tolerance mechanisms dominate for the defense against pathogenic microorganisms in mouse blood. Further on, species-related differences of immune cells mainly involved in innate immune response as well as differences to maintain oxidative homeostasis are also considered. A number of disease scenarios in mice are critically reflected for their suitability to serve as a model for human pathologies. Due to setbacks in these studies, novel mouse models were created to bridge the immune system of both species: humanized mice. Accordingly, a special section of this review is devoted to new results applying humanized mouse models taking limitations and prospects into account.


Tarnok A.,University of Leipzig | Pierzchalski A.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | Valet G.,Max Planck Institute For Biochemie
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

It takes about 10 to 15 years and roughly 800 mln $ to bring a new drug to the market. Only 10% of drug mole- cules entering clinical trials succeed and only 3 out of 10 drugs generate enough profit to pay back for the investment. Drug targets may be searched by hypothesis driven modeling of molecular networks within and between cells by systems biology. However, there is the potential to simplify the search for new drugs and drug targets by an initial top-down cytomics phase. The cytomics approach i) requires no detailed a-priori knowledge on mechanisms of drug activity or complex diseases, ii) is hypothesis driven for the investigated parameters (genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome a.o.) and iii) is hypothesis-free for data analysis. Moreover it iv) carries the potential to uncover unknown molecular interrelations as a prerequisite for later new hypothesis driven modeling and research strategies. A set of discriminatory parameter patterns (molecular hotspots) describing the cellular model (mechanism of drug action) can be identified by differential molecular cell phenotyping. Hereby, the immediate modeling of existing complexities by bottom-up oriented systems biology is avoided. The review focuses on the fast technological developments of molecular single cell analysis in recent years. They com- prise a multitude of sensitive new molecular markers as well as various new image and flow cytometric high-content screening methods as facilitators of the cytomics concept. New bioinformatic tools enable the extraction of relevant mo- lecular hotspots in description of cellular models, being required for the subsequent molecular reverse engineering phase by systems biology. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Spath C.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | Schlegel F.,Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine | Leontyev S.,Heart Center Leipzig | Mohr F.-W.,Heart Center Leipzig | Dhein S.,Heart Center Leipzig
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Background: Recently, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of engineered heart tissues for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in rats. For further development of this technique we started to produce engineered tissue (ET) from mesenchymal stem cells. Interestingly, we observed a malignant tumor invading the heart with an inverse relationship between proliferation markers and connexin expression. Methods: Commercial CD54+/CD90+/CD34-/CD45- bone marrow derived mesenchymal rat stem cells (cBM-MSC), characterized were used for production of mesenchymal stem-cell-ET (MSC-ET) by suspending them in a collagen I, matrigel-mixture and cultivating for 14 days with electrical stimulation. Three MSC-ET were implanted around the beating heart of adult rats for days. Another three MSC-ET were produced from freshly isolated rat bone marrow derived stem cells (sBM-MSC). Results: Three weeks after implantation of the MSC-ETs the hearts were surgically excised. While in 5/6 cases the ET was clearly distinguishable and was found as a ring containing mostly connective tissue around the heart, in 1/6 the heart was completely surrounded by a huge, undifferentiated, pleomorphic tumor originating from the cMSC-ET (cBM-MSC), classified as a high grade malignant sarcoma. Quantitatively we found a clear inverse relationship between cardiac connexin expression (Cx43, Cx40, or Cx45) and increased Ki-67 expression (Cx43: p < 0.0001, Cx45: p < 0.03, Cx40: p < 0.014). At the tumor-heart border there were significantly more Ki-67 positive cells (p = 0.001), and only 2% Cx45 and Ki-67-expressing cells, while the other connexins were nearly completely absent (p < 0.0001). Conclusion and Hypothesis: These observations strongly suggest the hypothesis, that invasive tumor growth is accompanied by reduction in connexins. This implicates that gap junction communication between tumor and normal tissue is reduced or absent, which could mean that growth and differentiation signals can not be exchanged. © 2013 Spath, Schlegel, Leontyev, Mohr and Dhein.

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