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Christensen C.L.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Kwiatkowski N.,Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research | Abraham B.J.,Whitehead Institute For Biomedical Research | Carretero J.,University of Valencia | And 24 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2014

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive disease with high mortality, and the identification of effective pharmacological strategies to target SCLC biology represents an urgent need. Using a high-throughput cellular screen of a diverse chemical library, we observe that SCLC is sensitive to transcription-targeting drugs, in particular to THZ1, a recently identified covalent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 7. We find that expression of super-enhancer-associated transcription factor genes, including MYC family proto-oncogenes and neuroendocrine lineage-specific factors, is highly vulnerability to THZ1 treatment. We propose that downregulation of these transcription factors contributes, in part, to SCLC sensitivity to transcriptional inhibitors and that THZ1 represents a prototype drug for tailored SCLC therapy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Mancikova V.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Castelblanco E.,University of Lleida | Pineiro-Yanez E.,Translational Bioinformatics Unit | Perales-Paton J.,Translational Bioinformatics Unit | And 16 more authors.
Modern Pathology | Year: 2015

MicroRNA deregulation could be a crucial event in thyroid carcinogenesis. However, current knowledge is based on studies that have used inherently biased methods. Thus, we aimed to define in an unbiased way a list of deregulated microRNAs in well-differentiated thyroid cancer in order to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers. We performed a microRNA deep-sequencing study using the largest well-differentiated thyroid tumor collection reported to date, comprising 127 molecularly characterized tumors with follicular or papillary patterns of growth and available clinical follow-up data, and 17 normal tissue samples. Furthermore, we integrated microRNA and gene expression data for the same tumors to propose targets for the novel molecules identified. Two main microRNA expression profiles were identified: one common for follicular-pattern tumors, and a second for papillary tumors. Follicular tumors showed a notable overexpression of several members of miR-515 family, and downregulation of the novel microRNA miR-1247. Among papillary tumors, top upregulated microRNAs were miR-146b and the miR-221∼222 cluster, while miR-1179 was downregulated. BRAF-positive samples displayed extreme downregulation of miR-7 and -204. The identification of the predicted targets for the novel molecules gave insights into the proliferative potential of the transformed follicular cell. Finally, by integrating clinical follow-up information with microRNA expression, we propose a prediction model for disease relapse based on expression of two miRNAs (miR-192 and let-7a) and several other clinicopathological features. This comprehensive study complements the existing knowledge about deregulated microRNAs in the development of well-differentiated thyroid cancer and identifies novel markers associated with recurrence-free survival. Source

Rampal R.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Rampal R.,New York Medical College | Al-Shahrour F.,Translational Bioinformatics Unit | Abdel-Wahab O.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 22 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

Genomic studies have identified somatic alterations in the majority of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients, including JAK2 mutations in the majority of MPN patients and CALR mutations in JAK2-negative MPN patients. However, the role of JAK-STAT pathway activation in different MPNs, and in patients without JAK2 mutations, has not been definitively delineated. We used expression profiling, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and mutational profiling to investigate a well-characterized cohort of MPN patients. MPN patients with homozygous JAK2V617F mutations were characterized by a distinctive transcriptional profile. Notably, a transcriptional signature consistent with activated JAK2 signaling is seen in all MPN patients regardless of clinical phenotype or mutational status. In addition, the activated JAK2 signature was present in patients with somatic CALR mutations. Conversely, we identified a gene expression signature of CALR mutations; this signature was significantly enriched in JAK2-mutant MPN patients consistent with a shared mechanism of transformation by JAK2 and CALR mutations. We also identified a transcriptional signature of TET2 mutations in MPN patent samples. Our data indicate that MPN patients, regardless of diagnosis or JAK2 mutational status, are characterized by a distinct gene expression signature with upregulation of JAK-STAT target genes, demonstrating the central importance of the JAK-STAT pathway in MPN pathogenesis. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Riesco-Eizaguirre G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Riesco-Eizaguirre G.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Riesco-Eizaguirre G.,Servicio Of Endocrinologia Hospital Universitario Of Mostoles | Wert-Lamas L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2015

The presence of differentiated thyroid cells in thyroid cancer is critical for the antitumor response to radioactive iodide treatment, and loss of the differentiated phenotype is a key hallmark of iodide-refractory metastatic disease. The role of microRNAs (miRNA) in fine-Tuning gene expression has become a major regulatory mechanism by which developmental and pathologic processes occur. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing and expression analysis of eight papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) to comprehensively characterize miRNAs involved in loss of differentiation. We found that only a small set of abundant miRNAs is differentially expressed between PTC tissue and normal tissue from the same patient. In addition, we integrated computational prediction of potential targets and mRNA sequencing and identified a master miRNA regulatory network involved in essential biologic processes such as thyroid differentiation. Both mature products of mir-146b (miR-146b-5p and-3p) were among the most abundantly expressed miRNAs in tumors. Specifically, we found that miR-146b-3p binds to the 30-untranslated region of PAX8 and sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), leading to impaired protein translation and a subsequent reduction in iodide uptake. Furthermore, our findings show that miR-146b and PAX8 regulate each other and sharecommon target genes, thus highlighting a novel regulatory circuit that governs the differentiated phenotype of PTC. In conclusion, our study has uncovered the existence of a miR-146b-3p/PAX8/NIS regulatory circuit that may be exploited therapeutically to modulate thyroid cell differentiation and iodide uptake for improved treatment of advanced thyroid cancer. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Soucheray M.,Loyola University Chicago | Capelletti M.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Capelletti M.,Belfer Institute for Applied Cancer Science | Pulido I.,University of Valencia | And 16 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2015

Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that have developed resistance to EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), including gefitinib and erlotinib, are clinically linked to an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Here, we examined whether modulating EMT maintains the responsiveness of EGFR-mutated NSCLCs to EGFR TKI therapy. Using human NSCLC cell lines harboring mutated EGFR and a transgenic mousemodel of lung cancer driven by mutant EGFR (EGFR-Del19-T790M), we demonstrate that EGFR inhibition induces TGFβ secretion followed by SMAD pathway activation, an event that promotes EMT. Chronic exposure of EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells to TGFβ was sufficient to induce EMT and resistance to EGFR TKI treatment. Furthermore, NSCLC HCC4006 cells with acquired resistance to gefitinib were characterized by a mesenchymal phenotype and displayed a higher prevalence of the EGFR T790M mutated allele. Notably, combined inhibition of EGFR and the TGFβ receptor in HCC4006 cells prevented EMT but was not sufficient to prevent acquired gefitinib resistance because of an increased emergence of the EGFR T790M allele compared with cells treated with gefitinib alone. Conversely, another independent NSCLC cell line, PC9, reproducibly developed EGFR T790M mutations as the primary mechanism underlying EGFR TKI resistance, even though the prevalence of the mutant allele was lower than that in HCC4006 cells. Thus, our findings underscore heterogeneity within NSCLC cells lines harboring EGFR kinase domain mutations that give rise to divergent resistance mechanisms in response to treatment and anticipate the complexity of EMT suppression as a therapeutic strategy © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

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