Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute

Eskişehir, Turkey

Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute

Eskişehir, Turkey
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Husenov B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Husenov B.,Tajik Agrarian University | Asaad S.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Muminjanov H.,FAO Sub regional Office for Central Asia FAO SEC | And 3 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2017

Wheat seed-borne diseases are among the major constraints reducing crop yield and the quality of seed and grain. In this study we aimed to evaluate the type and prevalence of fungal seed-borne diseases in Tajik wheat seed samples. Particular emphasis was given to common bunt resistance in advanced wheat breeding materials. Furthermore, we aimed to identify options for improving the seed quality. Seed samples collected from two different locations in Tajikistan were tested by conventional seed-health testing methods for presence of seed-borne diseases. Nineteen advanced wheat breeding lines and three varieties collected from the Tajik wheat breeding program were screened using an artificial inoculation test for their response to common bunt. Significant differences were found between the locations and genotypes concerning presence of common bunt and black point. Fourteen fungal species, where most of them are pathogenic for wheat, were identified in the seed samples. Tilletia laevis, T. tritici, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Stemphylium spp., and Drechslera spp. were the major pathogenic fungi observed in collected wheat samples. Common bunt was predominantly represented by T. laevis. No strong resistance was found in the studied Tajik wheat material, although a low percentage of infection was found in one line (SHARK/F4105W2.1), while the material was evaluated for common bunt resistance. In managing seed-borne diseases, breeding of resistant varieties should be given a priority, while cultural practices such as preventing contamination and monitoring seed health status should also be considered, as a last resort the use of chemical seed treatments are advised. © 2017 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Olgun M.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Yorgancilar O.,Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute | Uzun P.,Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute | Basciftci Z.B.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | And 3 more authors.
Custos e Agronegocio | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to determine the performance wheat genotypes for plant height, seed yield, seed weight per spike, chlorophyll content, harvest index, protein content, sedimentation, thousand seed weight and test weight; to identify gliadin band patterns and the extent of genetic diversity; to investigate gliadin components composition and the base of gliadin polymorphisms; in bread wheat genotypes. So, significant differences between years and genotypes showed that genotypes are under genotype x environment interaction for agronomic and quality characters, and wide range of differences took place among genotypes for agronomic, quality, gliadin and glutenine electrophoretic profiles. The highest performances were taken from Altay-2000, Müfitbey and Bezostaja-1 genotypes in seed yield, seed weight per spike, plant height, chlorophyll content, thousand seed weight, test weight, harvest index, protein content and sedimentation. Similarly, These genotypes had the highest gliadin relative mobility indexes and glutenine band scores. Correlations between seed weight per spike and seed yield, chlorophyll content and seed yield were significant. Quality characteristics had significant relationships with each other. Bezostaja-1, Müfitbey and Altay-2000 were found as high yielding and quality genotypes. © 2015, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. All rights reserved.

Sirel Z.,Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute | Aytac Z.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University
Turkish Journal of Field Crops | Year: 2016

This study was carried out in the experimental field of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Eskişehir Osmangazi, in 2009 and 2010 under semi-arid conditions. Thirteen different safflower cultivars and lines (V-49/848, V-50/166, V-50/426, V-51/263, KN 144, Finch, Sahuaripa 88, Ole, AC Stirling, Oleic Leed, US 10, N 5, UC-1) were used as materials. The cultivars and lines were planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Significant differences (P<0.01) were found for all studied yield components. The seed yield differed significantly between 976.7 and 1666.0 kg/ha. The seed yield showed a positive and significant correlation with plant height, seed yield per plant, seed weight per head and biological yield per plant. The greatest direct effect corresponded to plant height, seed weight/head and 1000-seed weight on seed yield. © 2016, Society of Field Crops Science. All rights reserved.

Mursalova J.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences | Akparov Z.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences | Ojaghi J.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences | Eldarov M.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2015

To evaluate the genetic diversity in 48 winter bread wheat genotypes originating from different countries, an experiment based on randomized complete block design with 4 replications was carried out in drip irrigation and rain-fed conditions at the field station of the Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute, Eskişehir, Turkey in 2011 and 2012. Based on grain yield under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, drought tolerance indices, i.e. stress susceptibility index (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI), tolerance index (TOL), mean productivity (MP), and geometric mean productivity (GMP), were calculated to identify genotypes with better yield and drought tolerance. Analysis of variance indicated that there were highly significant differences among the genotypes with regard to all the traits under the two experimental conditions. The correlation coefficients showed that STI, MP, and GMP were the most desirable selection criteria for high yielding and drought tolerant genotypes. Based on principle component analysis and biplot, genotypes numbered as 6, 11, 26, 41, 45, and 47 were susceptible genotypes. The genotypes numbered as 4, 12, 17, 24, 27, 28, 34, 35, 36, 38, and 42 were more stable under rain-fed conditions, while genotypes numbered as 9, 29, 31, and 44 were highly adapted to the irrigated conditions. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into 3 groups: resistant, susceptible, and tolerant to drought conditions. In conclusion, this study showed that drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes, while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability of drought tolerance in this material. Therefore, breeders can select stress-resistant wheat genotypes based on the MP, GMP, and STI indices. © 2015, TÜBITAK.

Phattarakul N.,Chiang Mai University | Rerkasem B.,Chiang Mai University | Li L.J.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu L.H.,Zhejiang University | And 9 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Background: Increasing zinc (Zn) concentration of rice seed has potential benefits for human nutrition and health. Enhanced levels of Zn in grain also contributes greatly to crop production through better germination and seedling vigor of rice plants grown on soils with limited Zn supply. Aims and methods: This study evaluated the effect of soil and/or foliar Zn fertilizer application on grain yield and grain Zn concentration of rice grown in 17 field trials conducted in 2008 to 2010 in China, India, Lao PDR, Thailand and Turkey on soils ranging in pH from 4. 8 to 8. 8 and DTPA- extractable Zn from 0. 5 to 6. 5 mg kg-1. Results: Zinc fertilization had little effect on rice grain yield with the exception of increases of up to 10 % in some locations in China and India. As an average of all trials, Zn application increased grain yield by about 5 %. Grain Zn concentrations were, however, more effectively increased by Zn fertilization, especially with foliar Zn applications. On average, Zn concentration in brown rice (whole caryopsis with husk removed) was increased by 25 % and 32 % by foliar and foliar + soil Zn applications, respectively, and only 2. 4 % by soil Zn application. The Zn concentration of un-husked rice (whole grain with husk), which was increased by 66 % by foliar Zn, showed a close association with the Zn in brown and white rice, indicating a possible penetration of Zn from the husk into the inner layers of the rice endosperm. Increase in grain Zn concentration by foliar Zn spray was significantly affected by the timing of the foliar application. More distinct increases in grain Zn by foliar Zn application were achieved when Zn was applied after flowering time, e. g., at early milk plus dough stages. Conclusions: Foliar Zn spray offers a practical and useful means for an effective biofortification of rice grain with Zn. This practice consistently and significantly contributed to increases in grain Zn of rice irrespective of cultivars, environmental conditions and management practices in 5 different countries. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zou C.Q.,Key Laboratory of Plant Soil Interaction | Zhang Y.Q.,Key Laboratory of Plant Soil Interaction | Rashid A.,Pakistan Academy of science | Ram H.,Punjab Agricultural University | And 16 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Aim: Zinc (Zn) fertilization is an effective agronomic tool for Zn biofortification of wheat for overcoming human Zn deficiency. But it still needs to be evaluated across locations with different management practices and wheat cultivars, since grain Zn concentrations may be significantly affected by locations, cultivars and management. Materials: Field experiments were conducted over 3 years with the following four Zn treatments: nil Zn, soil Zn application, foliar Zn application and soil + foliar Zn application to explore the impact of Zn fertilization in Zn biofortification of wheat. The experiments were conducted at a total of 23 experimental site-years in China, India, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey and Zambia. Results: The results showed that foliar Zn application alone or in combination with soil application, significantly increased grain Zn concentrations from 27 mg kg-1 at nil Zn to 48 and 49 mg kg-1 across all of 23 site-years, resulting in increases in grain Zn by 84 % and 90 %, respectively. Overall, soil Zn deficiency was not a growth limiting factor on the experimental sites. A significant grain yield increase in response to soil Zn fertilization was found only in Pakistan. When all locations and cropping years are combined, soil Zn fertilization resulted in about 5 % increase in grain yield. Foliar Zn application did not cause any adverse effect on grain yield, even slightly improved the yield. Across the 23 site-years, soil Zn application had a small effect on Zn concentration of leaves collected before foliar Zn application, and increased grain Zn concentration only by 12 %. The correlation between grain yield and the effectiveness of foliar Zn application on grain Zn was condition dependent, and was positive and significant at certain conditions. Conclusion: Foliar Zn application resulted in successful biofortification of wheat grain with Zn without causing yield loss. This effect of Zn fertilization occurred irrespective of the soil and environmental conditions, management practices applied and cultivars used in 23 site-years. Foliar Zn fertilizer approach can be locally adopted for increasing dietary Zn intake and fighting human Zn deficiency in rural areas. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Morgounov A.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Gummadov N.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Belen S.,Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute | Kaya Y.,Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2014

The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is gaining popularity as a complementary selection tool, even though it requires an instrument not readily available in the developing world. We evaluated several parameters (originating from the analysis of digital photos using BreedPix software) as potential selection criteria in 23 winter wheat yield trials grown over 4 years at 2 sites. NDVI and digital photos were taken at key development stages from stem elongation to maturity. The correlations between digital photo parameters a and u and grain yield, as well as correlations between NDVI and grain yield within individual trials, varied depending on crop stage, moisture availability, and germplasm composition. NDVI, photo-a, and photo-u parameters had equal power in distinguishing high- and low-yielding genotypes in the trials and were significantly associated with yield in approximately 50% of all observations. The association of vegetative indices with grain yield can be improved by evaluating germplasm with a similar maturity range. An important challenge is in utilizing these tools in unreplicated small plots, including head rows where selection efficiency is low. © TÜBİTAK.

Mirtagioglu H.,Yuzuncuyil University | Yigit S.,Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute | Mollaogullari A.,Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University | Genc S.,Ahi Evran University | Mendes M.,Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2014

In this study, the effect of using trimmed, winsorized, and modified means instead of arithmetic mean on type-I error rate was investigated when the assumptions of the one-way ANOVA were not satisfied. Therefore, random numbers were generated by simulation technique from the populations distributed by Normal (0,1), Beta (5,2) and χ2 (3) for 3 and 4 groups. The results of 30 000 simulation trials demonstrated that all the means displayed similar type-I error rates when the variances were homogenous regardless of the distribution shape, sample size and the number of groups. When homogeneity of variances assumption was not satisfied, the most reliable result was obtained by using trimmed mean in terms of keeping the type-I error rate at nominal alpha level and it was followed by modified and winsorized means. The most biased results were obtained when arithmetic mean was used.

Ozkan A.,Anadolu University | Banar M.,Anadolu University | Cokaygil Z.,Anadolu University | Kulac A.,Anadolu University | And 3 more authors.
Ekoloji | Year: 2014

This study focuses on the phytoremediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soil by hyperaccumulator plants. In this study, pyrolysis was utilized for the stabilization of Pb into a solid product. In the first stage of the study, three types of phytoremediation plants were used, rape (Brassica napus), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and corn (Zea mays). Their seeds were sown in simulated soils prepared with the addition of Pb compounds in a laboratory. The effect of chelate on the remediation capacity of the plants was investigated by the addition of EDTA in different concentrations. In this way, the transportation of Pb from the contaminated soils to the plants was examined. In the second stage, the initial plant compositions were determined by elemental analysis (C, H, N, and S), as well as a moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon analysis. The contaminated hyperaccumulator plants were pyrolyzed at 500°C, with a heating rate of 35° C/min, in a fixed bed stainless steel (380 S) 240 cm3 reactor. After pyrolysis, the Pb contents of the solid and liquid products were determined. A Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analysis was also utilized for the solid product. In this study, high phytoremediation efficiencies were observed for the phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil using sunflower, corn, and rape, especially in the case of the chelate addition. Of the three plants, the best Pb removal efficiency (92%) from the soil was obtained with the rape. According to the pyrolysis results, the highest yields of liquid and solid products were obtained from the sunflower with gas products being obtained from the corn pyrolysis. © 2014, Cevkor Vakfi. All rights reserved.

Kose A.,Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

This research has been conducted in order to investigate yield and quality characteristics of some safflower lines, and varieties under dry and irrigated conditions in Eskisehir, Turkey. In this study, 15 safflower lines and varieties obtained by Dryland Agricultural Research Institute in Iran, and 3 varieties (Dincer, Remzibey, Balci) developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. The experiment was set up in randomized complete block design with four replications in 2010. Irrigations were applied at stem elongation and onset of flowering period. Plant height (cm), number of secondary branches per plant (unit), number of heads per plant (unit), 1000 seed weight (g), seed yield (kg/da) and oil content (%) were determined. Results of the statistical analysis revealed to significant differences among lines and varieties in all the traits studied under dry and irrigated conditions. Seed yields ranged between 158.1 and 85.9 kg/da under dry conditions, between 252.8 and 172.2 kg/da under irrigated conditions. Oil ratios varied between 38.7% and 30.6% under dry conditions and between 35.7% and 29.1% under irrigated conditions. According to the results, Balci variety showed high yield potential and oil content in dry condition. Considering the trial means, seed yields for irrigated conditions have increased around by 70% according to dry conditions. While Balci has the highest yield in dry condition, irrigated conditions highest yield was obtained from line 376. It was found that lines and varieties showed different reaction to irrigation. While irrigation increased seed yield, oil content decreased, but Balci is the highest oil content in two trials. Safflower is especially arid area crop, but it has been cultivated easily in places where irrigation facilities are available, but variety should be chosen carefully.

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