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Mursalova J.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences | Akparov Z.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences | Ojaghi J.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences | Eldarov M.,Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2015

To evaluate the genetic diversity in 48 winter bread wheat genotypes originating from different countries, an experiment based on randomized complete block design with 4 replications was carried out in drip irrigation and rain-fed conditions at the field station of the Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute, Eskişehir, Turkey in 2011 and 2012. Based on grain yield under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, drought tolerance indices, i.e. stress susceptibility index (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI), tolerance index (TOL), mean productivity (MP), and geometric mean productivity (GMP), were calculated to identify genotypes with better yield and drought tolerance. Analysis of variance indicated that there were highly significant differences among the genotypes with regard to all the traits under the two experimental conditions. The correlation coefficients showed that STI, MP, and GMP were the most desirable selection criteria for high yielding and drought tolerant genotypes. Based on principle component analysis and biplot, genotypes numbered as 6, 11, 26, 41, 45, and 47 were susceptible genotypes. The genotypes numbered as 4, 12, 17, 24, 27, 28, 34, 35, 36, 38, and 42 were more stable under rain-fed conditions, while genotypes numbered as 9, 29, 31, and 44 were highly adapted to the irrigated conditions. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into 3 groups: resistant, susceptible, and tolerant to drought conditions. In conclusion, this study showed that drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes, while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability of drought tolerance in this material. Therefore, breeders can select stress-resistant wheat genotypes based on the MP, GMP, and STI indices. © 2015, TÜBITAK. Source


Morgounov A.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Gummadov N.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Belen S.,Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute | Kaya Y.,Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2014

The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is gaining popularity as a complementary selection tool, even though it requires an instrument not readily available in the developing world. We evaluated several parameters (originating from the analysis of digital photos using BreedPix software) as potential selection criteria in 23 winter wheat yield trials grown over 4 years at 2 sites. NDVI and digital photos were taken at key development stages from stem elongation to maturity. The correlations between digital photo parameters a and u and grain yield, as well as correlations between NDVI and grain yield within individual trials, varied depending on crop stage, moisture availability, and germplasm composition. NDVI, photo-a, and photo-u parameters had equal power in distinguishing high- and low-yielding genotypes in the trials and were significantly associated with yield in approximately 50% of all observations. The association of vegetative indices with grain yield can be improved by evaluating germplasm with a similar maturity range. An important challenge is in utilizing these tools in unreplicated small plots, including head rows where selection efficiency is low. © TÜBİTAK. Source


Sirel Z.,Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute | Aytac Z.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University
Turkish Journal of Field Crops | Year: 2016

This study was carried out in the experimental field of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Eskişehir Osmangazi, in 2009 and 2010 under semi-arid conditions. Thirteen different safflower cultivars and lines (V-49/848, V-50/166, V-50/426, V-51/263, KN 144, Finch, Sahuaripa 88, Ole, AC Stirling, Oleic Leed, US 10, N 5, UC-1) were used as materials. The cultivars and lines were planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Significant differences (P<0.01) were found for all studied yield components. The seed yield differed significantly between 976.7 and 1666.0 kg/ha. The seed yield showed a positive and significant correlation with plant height, seed yield per plant, seed weight per head and biological yield per plant. The greatest direct effect corresponded to plant height, seed weight/head and 1000-seed weight on seed yield. © 2016, Society of Field Crops Science. All rights reserved. Source


Kose A.,Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

This research has been conducted in order to investigate yield and quality characteristics of some safflower lines, and varieties under dry and irrigated conditions in Eskisehir, Turkey. In this study, 15 safflower lines and varieties obtained by Dryland Agricultural Research Institute in Iran, and 3 varieties (Dincer, Remzibey, Balci) developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. The experiment was set up in randomized complete block design with four replications in 2010. Irrigations were applied at stem elongation and onset of flowering period. Plant height (cm), number of secondary branches per plant (unit), number of heads per plant (unit), 1000 seed weight (g), seed yield (kg/da) and oil content (%) were determined. Results of the statistical analysis revealed to significant differences among lines and varieties in all the traits studied under dry and irrigated conditions. Seed yields ranged between 158.1 and 85.9 kg/da under dry conditions, between 252.8 and 172.2 kg/da under irrigated conditions. Oil ratios varied between 38.7% and 30.6% under dry conditions and between 35.7% and 29.1% under irrigated conditions. According to the results, Balci variety showed high yield potential and oil content in dry condition. Considering the trial means, seed yields for irrigated conditions have increased around by 70% according to dry conditions. While Balci has the highest yield in dry condition, irrigated conditions highest yield was obtained from line 376. It was found that lines and varieties showed different reaction to irrigation. While irrigation increased seed yield, oil content decreased, but Balci is the highest oil content in two trials. Safflower is especially arid area crop, but it has been cultivated easily in places where irrigation facilities are available, but variety should be chosen carefully. Source


Phattarakul N.,Chiang Mai University | Rerkasem B.,Chiang Mai University | Li L.J.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu L.H.,Zhejiang University | And 9 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Background: Increasing zinc (Zn) concentration of rice seed has potential benefits for human nutrition and health. Enhanced levels of Zn in grain also contributes greatly to crop production through better germination and seedling vigor of rice plants grown on soils with limited Zn supply. Aims and methods: This study evaluated the effect of soil and/or foliar Zn fertilizer application on grain yield and grain Zn concentration of rice grown in 17 field trials conducted in 2008 to 2010 in China, India, Lao PDR, Thailand and Turkey on soils ranging in pH from 4. 8 to 8. 8 and DTPA- extractable Zn from 0. 5 to 6. 5 mg kg-1. Results: Zinc fertilization had little effect on rice grain yield with the exception of increases of up to 10 % in some locations in China and India. As an average of all trials, Zn application increased grain yield by about 5 %. Grain Zn concentrations were, however, more effectively increased by Zn fertilization, especially with foliar Zn applications. On average, Zn concentration in brown rice (whole caryopsis with husk removed) was increased by 25 % and 32 % by foliar and foliar + soil Zn applications, respectively, and only 2. 4 % by soil Zn application. The Zn concentration of un-husked rice (whole grain with husk), which was increased by 66 % by foliar Zn, showed a close association with the Zn in brown and white rice, indicating a possible penetration of Zn from the husk into the inner layers of the rice endosperm. Increase in grain Zn concentration by foliar Zn spray was significantly affected by the timing of the foliar application. More distinct increases in grain Zn by foliar Zn application were achieved when Zn was applied after flowering time, e. g., at early milk plus dough stages. Conclusions: Foliar Zn spray offers a practical and useful means for an effective biofortification of rice grain with Zn. This practice consistently and significantly contributed to increases in grain Zn of rice irrespective of cultivars, environmental conditions and management practices in 5 different countries. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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