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Brignardello E.,Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors | Felicetti F.,Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors | Castiglione A.,University of Turin | Gallo M.,Citta della Salute e della Science Hospital | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Introduction The optimal surveillance strategy to screen for thyroid carcinoma childhood cancer survivors (CCS) at increased risk is still debated. In our clinical practice, beside neck palpation we routinely perform thyroid ultrasound (US). Here we describe the results obtained using this approach. Methods We considered all CCS referred to our long term clinic from November 2001 to September 2014. One hundred and ninety-seven patients who had received radiation therapy involving the thyroid gland underwent US surveillance. Thyroid US started 5 years after radiotherapy and repeated every 3 years, if negative. Results Among 197 CCS previously irradiated to the thyroid gland, 74 patients (37.5%) developed thyroid nodules, and fine-needle aspiration was performed in 35. In 11 patients the cytological examination was suspicious or diagnostic for malignancy (TIR 4/5), whereas a follicular lesion was diagnosed in nine. Patients with TIR 4/5 cytology were operated and in all cases thyroid cancer diagnosis was confirmed. The nine patients with TIR 3 cytology also underwent surgery and a carcinoma was diagnosed in three of them. Prevalence of thyroid cancer was 7.1%. Tumour size ranged between 4 and 25 mm, but six (43%) were classified T3 because of extra-thyroidal extension. Six patients had nodal metastases; in eight patients the tumour was multifocal. At the time of the study all patients are disease free, without evidence of surgery complications. Conclusion Applying our US surveillance protocol, the prevalence of radiation-induced thyroid cancer is high. Histological features of the thyroid cancers diagnosed in our cohort suggest that most of them were clinically relevant tumours. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Felicetti F.,Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors | Felicetti F.,Oncological Endocrinology Unit | Fortunati N.,Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors | Fortunati N.,Oncological Endocrinology Unit | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2015

Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) are at risk of developing meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence of meningiomas in a cohort of CCS who previously underwent CRT. Methods: We considered all CCS who received CRT and were followed up at the “Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors” in Turin. Even though asymptomatic, they had at least one brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed at a minimum interval of 10 years after treatment for pediatric cancer. Results: We identified 90 patients (median follow-up 24.6 years). Fifteen patients developed meningioma (median time from pediatric cancer, 22.5 years). In four patients, it was suspected on the basis of neurological symptoms (i.e., headache or seizures), whereas all other cases, including five giant meningiomas, were discovered in otherwise asymptomatic patients. Multiple meningiomas were discovered in four CCS. Ten patients underwent surgical resection. An atypical meningioma (grade II WHO) was reported in four patients. One patient with multiple meningiomas died for a rapid growth of the intracranial lesions. A second neoplasm (SN) other than meningioma was diagnosed in five out of the 15 patients with meningioma and in ten out of the 75 CCS without meningioma. Cox multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of meningioma was associated with the development of other SNs, whereas age, sex, or CRT dose had no influence. Conclusions: CCS at risk of the development of meningioma deserve close clinical follow-up, especially those affected by other SNs. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Fortunati N.,Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors | Fortunati N.,Breast Unit | Fortunati N.,Oncological Endocrinology Unit | Felicetti F.,Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors | And 9 more authors.
Oncology Letters | Year: 2015

Pituitary metastases occur in 6-8% of breast cancer cases, but are seldom diagnosed and rarely reported. Therefore, it can be challenging to establish a clinical differential diagnosis, and at present, a definitive criteria is not available. The present study discusses the pituitary lesions identified in three patients with breast cancer, and describes their management within the collaborative framework of the Breast Unit at the Città della Salute Hospital, which also included assessment by endocrinologists. The patients were evaluated for anterior and posterior pituitary function, the appearance of the pituitary upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the oncology status and treatment. In addition, successive analysis of prolactin levels and the MRI was performed. The patients, aged 75, 83 and 76 years old, differed in their clinical presentation and successive evolution. One patient demonstrated an abrupt onset of diabetes insipidus, the second exhibited overt hypopituitarism and the final patient had a pituitary mass discovered by chance. Cases one and three exhibited systemic spread of the breast cancer, with bone and/or parenchymal metastasis, but not brain metastasis. Case two presented with a secondary pituitary tumour alone. In case three, a secondary nature to the pituitary lesion was unlikely, since there was no lesion evolution evident following MRI and as stable prolactin levels were observed over the course of the study period. By contrast, case one presented with a rapid increase of sellar lesions on MRI, together with a progressive rise in prolactin levels. Taking into account the frailty of breast cancer patients who are monitored for disease progression, management in a collaborative framework, such as at the Breast Unit, makes it possible to establish a diagnosis of sellar lesions, which is adequate for the comprehensive management of the patient with successive pituitary MRIs and prolactin evaluations, and avoids unnecessary invasive neurosurgery. © 2015, Spandidos Publications. All Rights Reserved.

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