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Kōbe-shi, Japan

Chatani N.,Osaka University | Kamada Y.,Osaka University | Kizu T.,Osaka University | Ogura S.,Osaka University | And 9 more authors.
Liver International | Year: 2015

Background & Aims: Obesity-related adipocytokine dysregulation is known to accelerate liver fibrosis progression. Recently, a natural Wnt5a inhibitor, secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5), was identified as a novel adipocytokine that has reduced expression in obese adipose tissue in both rodents and human. In addition, hepatic gene expression of Wnt5a and its receptor frizzled 2 (Fz2) is elevated during fibrosis progression. Therefore, Sfrp5 could have biological significance in liver fibrosis. Methods: We first investigated the effects of Sfrp5 on primary cultured mouse hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro. Next, to elucidate the roles of Sfrp5 in liver fibrosis, we investigated a carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis model using Sfrp5 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice in vivo. Each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg) or olive oil as a single dose (acute liver injury model), or twice a week for 6 weeks (liver fibrosis model). Results: In in vitro studies, Wnt5a enhanced both proliferation and migration of HSCs, and these effects could be completely blocked by Sfrp5. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of Fz2 in HSCs could block the effects of Wnt5a on both HSC proliferation and migration. In in vivo studies, there were no differences in the CCl4-induced liver injury between KO and WT mice. Hepatic Wnt5a gene expression and plasma Wnt5a levels significantly increased after a single CCl4 injection in both mice. Sfrp5 knockout significantly enhanced CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that Sfrp5 may ameliorate mouse liver fibrosis through inhibition of Wnt5a/Fz2 signalling. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Mongini P.K.A.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research | Kramer J.M.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research | Ishikawa T.-O.,University of California at Los Angeles | Ishikawa T.-O.,Transgenic Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is characterized by salivary gland leukocytic infiltrates and impaired salivation (xerostomia). Cox-2 (Ptgs2) is located on chromosome 1 within the span of the Aec2 region. In an attempt to demonstrate that COX-2 drives antibody-dependent hyposalivation, NOD. B10 congenic mice bearing a Cox-2flox gene were generated. A congenic line with non-NOD alleles in Cox-2-flanking genes failed manifest xerostomia. Further backcrossing yielded disease-susceptible NOD. B10 Cox-2flox lines; fine genetic mapping determined that critical Aec2 genes lie within a 1.56 to 2.17. Mb span of DNA downstream of Cox-2. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that susceptible and non-susceptible lines exhibit non-synonymous coding SNPs in 8 protein-encoding genes of this region, thereby better delineating candidate Aec2 alleles needed for SS xerostomia. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Gauger K.J.,Pioneer Valley Life science Institute | Gauger K.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Shimono A.,Transgenic Inc. | Crisi G.M.,Baystate Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
BMC Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

Background: Secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) are a family of proteins that block the Wnt signaling pathway and loss of SFRP1 expression is found in breast cancer along with a multitude of other human cancers. Activated Wnt signaling leads to inappropriate mammary gland development and mammary tumorigenesis in mice. When SFRP1 is knocked down in immortalized non-malignant mammary epithelial cells, the cells exhibit a malignant phenotype which resembles the characteristics observed in metastatic breast cancer stem-like cells. However, the effects of SFRP1 loss on mammary gland development in vivo are yet to be elucidated. The work described here was initiated to investigate the role of SFRP1 in mammary gland development and whether SFRP1 / mice exhibit changes in mammary gland morphology and cell signaling pathways shown to be associated with SFRP1 loss in vitro. Results: 10 week old nulliparous SFRP1 / mammary glands exhibited branching with clear lobulo-alveolar development, which normally only occurs in hormonally stimulated mid-pregnant wt mammary glands. Explant cultures of SFRP1 / mammary glands display increased levels of a well known Wnt signaling target gene, Axin2. Histomorphologic evaluation of virgin glands revealed that by 10 weeks of age, the duct profile is markedly altered in SFRP1 / mice showing a significantly higher density of ducts with distinct alveoli present throughout the mammary gland, and with focal ductal epithelial hyperplasia. These findings persist as the mice age and are evident at 23 weeks of age. Changes in gene expression, including c-Myc, TGF-2, Wnt4, RANKL, and Rspo2 early in mammary gland development are consistent with the excessive hyper branching phenotype. Finally, we found that loss of SFRP1 significantly increases the number of mammary epithelial cells capable of mammosphere formation. Conclusions: Our study indicates that SFRP1 gene is critical for maintaining proper mammary gland development, and that reduced levels of SFRP1 results in hyperplastic lesions and its loss may be a critical event in cancer initiation. © 2012 Gauger et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Araki Y.,Hiroshima University | Hamafuji T.,Transgenic Inc. | Noguchi C.,Hiroshima University | Shimizu N.,Hiroshima University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

We previously found that plasmids bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR) and a nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) efficiently initiate gene amplification and spontaneously increase their copy numbers in animal cells. In this study, this novel method was applied to the establishment of cells with high recombinant antibody production. The level of recombinant antibody expression was tightly correlated with the efficiency of plasmid amplification and the cytogenetic appearance of the amplified genes, and was strongly dependent on cell type. By using a widely used cell line for industrial protein production, CHO DG44, clones expressing very high levels of antibody were easily obtained. High-producer clones stably expressed the antibody over several months without eliciting changes in both the protein expression level and the cytogenetic appearance of the amplified genes. The integrity and reactivity of the protein produced by this method was fine. In serum-free suspension culture, the specific protein production rate in high-density cultures was 29.4 pg/cell/day. In conclusion, the IR/MAR gene amplification method is a novel and efficient platform for recombinant antibody production in mammalian cells, which rapidly and easily enables the establishment of stable high-producer cell clone. © 2012 Araki et al. Source


Sugiyama Y.,University of Sydney | Shelley E.J.,University of Sydney | Wen L.,University of Sydney | Stump R.J.W.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

During eye lens development, regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for two major processes: initially it must be silent in the lens placode for lens development to proceed, but subsequently it is required for maintenance of the lens epithelium. It is not known how these different phases of Wnt/β-catenin activity/inactivity are regulated. Secreted frizzled related protein-2 (Sfrp2), a putative Wnt-Fz antagonist, is expressed in lens placode and in lens epithelial cells and has been put forward as a candidate for regional Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulation. Here we show its closely-related isoform, Sfrp1, has a complimentary pattern of expression in the lens, being absent from the placode and epithelium but expressed in the fibers. As mice with single knockouts of Sfrp1 or Sfrp2 had no defects in lens formation, we examined lenses of Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 double knockout (DKO) mice and showed that they formed lens placode and subsequent lens structures. Consistent with this we did not observe ectopic TCF/Lef activity in lens placode of DKOs. This indicates that Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 individually, or together, do not constitute the putative negative regulator that blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling during lens induction. In contrast, Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 appear to have a positive regulatory function because Wnt/β-catenin signaling in lens epithelial cells was reduced in Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 DKO mice. Lenses that formed in DKO mice were smaller than controls and exhibited a deficient epithelium. Thus Sfrps play a role in lens development, at least in part, by regulating aspects of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in lens epithelial cells. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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