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Bangkok, Thailand

Russi G.,Transfusion Medicine Unit
Transfusion and Apheresis Science | Year: 2015

During pregnancy physiological changes occur in the lipid metabolism due to changing hormonal conditions: the LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] increase throughout pregnancy. Common lipoprotein disorders are associated in pregnancy with two major clinical disorders: severe hypertriglyceridemia (SHTG) is a potent risk factor for development of acute pancreatitis and elevated cholesterol due to greater concentrations of LDL and remnant lipoproteins and reduced levels of HDL promote atherosclerosis. The combination of homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) and pregnancy can be a fatal condition. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) may be used for an urgent need of a fast and effective lowering of TG levels in order to prevent a severe pancreatitis episode or hypertriglyceridemia-induced complications during pregnancy. LDL apheresis can decrease LDL-C and prevent complications and can be considered in the treatment of pregnancies complicated by high LDL-C. These conditions are configured in patients with HeFH who were taking statins before pregnancy (selected cases), patients already receiving apheresis before pregnancy suffering from HoFH, patients suffering from hypertriglyceridemia due to familial hyperlipoproteinemia types I and V, and cases of hypertriglyceridemia secondary to diabetes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Watanaboonyongcharoen P.,Transfusion Medicine Unit | Na Nakorn T.,Chulalongkorn University | Rojnuckarin P.,Chulalongkorn University | Lawasut P.,King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital | Intragumtornchai T.,Chulalongkorn University
International Journal of Hematology | Year: 2012

Individuals with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) develop multiple myeloma and related malignancies at the rate of 1% per year. Given differences in ethnicity, data on prevalence and risk factors of MGUS in Thai population will be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of plasma cell disorders and designing an early cancer detection strategy. Subjects of 50 years or older were included. Demographic data and suspected risk factors were collected. Monoclonal proteins were detected using serum protein electrophoresis. Serum was obtained from 3,260 participants; 1,104 males (33.9%) and 2,156 females (66.1%). The median age was 57 years (range 50-93 years). Monoclonal proteins were detectable in 2.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.8). M spikes were found in gamma- and beta-globulin regions in 50 (1.5%) and 25 (0.8%) subjects, respectively. The prevalence of MGUS in subjects 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years or older was 2.0% (41/1,975), 2.6% (22/851), and 2.8% (12/ 434), respectively. By multivariate analysis, MGUS was associated with living outside Bangkok (odds ratio 2.25, 95% CI 1.11-4.58). The overall prevalence of MGUS in the Thai population was 2.3%, which was lower than that in Western countries, but comparable to that in Japan. © The Japanese Society of Hematology 2012.

Asenso-Mensah K.,Transfusion Medicine Unit
Transfusion | Year: 2014

In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) confirmed viral marker prevalence between family donors (FDs) and first-time volunteer nonremunerated donors (VNRDs) is similar. In a blood service collecting 10 units/1000 inhabitants, a questionnaire examined FD donation conditions and willingness of becoming repeat VNRDs. Four areas were explored: circumstances of visit to hospital, external pressure, experience of donating, and potential repeat donation. After donation and consent, research assistants administered 25 questions and, according to literacy, helped with translation and completion. Of 513 FDs, three-fourths were males (median age, 27 years). Only 1.3% were unemployed and more than 50% were students or teachers. Ties with hospitalized patient were family (76%), friends (13%), colleagues, or sharing place of worship (10%). Donating blood was the reason for visiting in 16.8% and 20.9% had previously donated blood probably as FDs. In one-third of FDs, the family asked for donation of which 10% was pressured by the unjustified reason that not donating was endangering the patient's life. For two-thirds of FDs, donation was given "because individuals were asked." Donation was a positive experience for 77% of donors, 62% being interested in predonation testing. Repeating donation was acceptable for 99% of 79% FDs answering. FDs are active in the population, are willing to donate blood if asked, are submitted to little pressure, do not receive incentives, and accept repeat donation. Except for circumstances of donation, FDs are not different from VNRDs and more directly motivated. They constitute a legitimate and important source to improve the blood supply in SSA. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

Allain J.-P.,University of Cambridge | Owusu-Ofori A.K.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Assennato S.M.,University of Cambridge | Marschner S.,Terumo BCT | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Background Transfusion-transmitted malaria is a frequent but neglected adverse event in Ghana. We did a randomised controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a whole blood pathogen reduction technology at preventing transfusion transmission of Plasmodium spp parasites. Methods For this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial, eligible adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with blood group O+, who required up to two whole blood unit transfusions within 3 days of randomisation and were anticipated to remain in hospital for at least 3 consecutive days after initial transfusion, were enrolled from Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. The main exclusion criteria were symptoms of clinical malaria, antimalaria treatment within 7 days before randomisation, fever, and haemorrhage expected to require transfusion with up to two units of whole blood during the 3 days following study entry. Eligible patients were randomly assigned 1:1 by computer-generated permuted block randomisation (block size four) list to receive transfusion with either pathogen-reduced whole blood (treated) or whole blood prepared and transfused by standard local practice (untreated). Patients, health-care providers, and data collectors were masked to treatment allocation. Patients in both groups received up to two whole blood unit transfusions that were retrospectively tested for parasitaemia. Pre-transfusion and post-transfusion blood samples (taken on days 0, 1, 3, 7, and 28) were tested for presence and amount of parasite genome, and assessed for haematological and biochemical parameters. The primary endpoint was the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-parasitaemic recipients exposed to parasitaemic whole blood, defined as two consecutive parasitaemic post-transfusion samples with parasite allelic matching, assessed at 1-7 days after transfusion. Secondary endpoints included haematological parameters and a safety analysis of adverse events in patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02118428, and with the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, number PACTR201406000777310. Findings Between March 12, 2014, and Nov 7, 2014, 227 patients were enrolled into the study, one of whom was subsequently excluded because she did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 226 randomised patients, 113 were allocated to receive treated whole blood and 113 to receive standard untreated whole blood. 223 patients (111 treated and 112 untreated) received study-related transfusions, whereas three patients (two treated and one untreated) did not. 214 patients (107 treated and 107 untreated) completed the protocol as planned and comprised the per-protocol population. Overall, 65 non-parasitaemic patients (28 treated and 37 untreated) were exposed to parasitaemic blood. The incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria was significantly lower for the pathogen-reduced (treated) patients (1 [4%] of 28 patients) than the untreated group (8 [22%] of 37 patients) in this population (p=0·039). Overall, 92 (41%) of 223 patients reported 145 treatment-related emergent adverse events during the conduct of the study, with a similar incidence of adverse events between groups receiving untreated or treated whole blood. No transfusion-related deaths occurred in the trial. Interpretation Treatment of whole blood with the Mirasol pathogen reduction system for whole blood reduced the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria. The primary endpoint of the study was achieved in the population of non-parasitaemic patients receiving parasitaemic whole blood. The safety profile and clinical outcomes were similar across the two treatment groups. Funding Terumo BCT Inc. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Freimanis G.L.,University of Cambridge | Owusu-Ofori S.,Transfusion Medicine Unit | Allain J.-P.,University of Cambridge
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Areas endemic for malaria and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection largely overlap geographically. A recent study has suggested the existence of an interaction between the two pathogens in symptomatic co-infected individuals on the South-American continent. We examined this issue in a hyperendemic area for both pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa. Methodology and Findings: Pre-transfusion samples from a retrospective cohort of 154 blood transfusion recipients were screened for both serological and molecular markers of HBV and Plasmodium genomes using species-specific nested PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. Thirty-seven individuals met exclusion criteria and were subsequently eliminated from further analysis. Of 117 participants, 90% of recipients exhibited evidence of exposure to HBV, 42% with HBsAg and/or HBV DNA and 48% anti-HBc reactive without detectable HBV DNA. Plasmodium genome prevalence by NAT was 50%. Parasitemic individuals were significantly younger than non-parasitemic individuals (P = 0.04). Parasitemia level was not significantly lower in individuals with HBV DNA positive infections compared to those with HBV DNA negative exposures. HBV DNA load was not significantly different in parasitemic and non-parasitemic individuals. Conclusion: The data presented suggests that, in sub-Saharan Africa, asymptomatic co-infections with these two ubiquitous pathogens do not appear to significantly affect each other and evolve independently. © 2012 Freimanis et al.

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