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Ferro P.J.,Texas A&M University | Khan O.,Texas A&M University | Peterson M.J.,Texas A&M University | Batchuluun D.,Transboundary Animal Disease Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012

Wild waterfowl are considered the natural reservoir of type A influenza viruses, and the migratory nature of many waterfowl species presents a possible vehicle for global dissemination of these infectious agents. In order to fully understand the ecology of influenza viruses, multiyear surveillance efforts are critical, particularly in understudied areas, such as waterfowl wintering areas. Herein we report results obtained during the fifth year of a 5-yr avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance project conducted on waterfowl wintering grounds of the Texas Coast. During year 5, the 2009-2010 hunting season (September, November-January), 655 cloacal swabs were collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl and screened for AIV by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) followed by virus isolation on all positive samples. Molecular methods were used for subtyping all AIV isolates. Sixty-five (9.5%) samples were positive for AIV by rRT-PCR, and 24 (3.7%) AIVs were isolated. Eight different hemagglutinin (H3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 11) and seven different neuraminidase (N1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9) subtypes were identified. This was the first year H8 and H9 were isolated throughout the 5-yr survey. Our results support the fact that continued multiyear surveillance of natural reservoirs, particularly in understudied areas, is needed in order to better understand the ecology of AIVs in nature.

Kang H.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Kim M.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Choi J.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Batchuluun D.,Transboundary Animal Disease Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

The present study was conducted to monitor wild birds based on the concern that they could disseminate avian influenza virus (AIV) between Mongolia and Korea, which shares the same migratory flyway. Of 1,528 fecal samples analyzed, 21 low-pathogenic AIV were isolated from 2007 to 2009. Nineteen AIV-positive fecal samples were identified as Anseriformes by DNA bar coding. The most frequently isolated subtype was H3 (61.9%), and the most prevalent hemagglutinin/ neuraminidase combination was H3N8 (52.4%). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to assess their genetic relationships with those of domestic poultry and wild birds in Korea. The H3 and H7 surface genes belonged to the Eurasian lineage and clustered together in a group with Korean wild birds and poultry. Most N8 genes clustered phylogenetically with viruses isolated in Eurasia, whereas 1 of the Mongolian viruses and some Korean viruses belonged to the North American lineage. The polymerase acidic protein of the internal gene was not distinguishable from the H5N1 highly pathogenic AIV of the goose/guangdong/1/1996 (gs/ gd)-like virus. Our study suggests that Mongolian AIV isolates have evolved with genetically multiple genotypes and are closely related to those of AIV in poultry as well as in wild birds in Korea. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

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