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Staplin L.,TransAnalytics LLC | Freund K.,ITNAmerica
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

This paper advocates policy change in three key areas: infrastructure, driver licensing, and access to private resources for transportation alternatives. Policy makers are encouraged to plan for the transportation future of our aging society by prioritizing public expenditures for roads and highways according to design and engineering practices already proven to assist older drivers and pedestrians. By adopting minimum, evidence-based requirements for visual, mental and physical capability for licensure and uniformly applying them at all ages, across all states, policy makers can improve the safety of older drivers without unfairly restricting their mobility - and need not increase the regulatory burden in doing so. By reviewing and replicating already successful state policies that either create incentives or remove barriers to the use of private resources for non-profit, senior transportation, policy makers can help communities access the labor and capital, as well as manage the risks of market-oriented, non-profit mobility solutions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Sixty-seven older adults were assessed using multiple validated tools. The current study aimed to identify high-, medium-, and low-risk impairment among older drivers and to explore high-risk drivers' reactions to being told their results. Of 67 adults screened from a convenience sample of older drivers, nine high-risk participants, four completed in-depth follow-up qualitative interviews. The quantitative assessment algorithm identified 13% as high risk, 30% as medium risk, and 57% as low risk, and only Trails B distinguished the medium- and high-risk impairment groups. Although the assessment tests did not predict future crash involvement over a 7-month period, four participants in the medium- and high-risk impairment categories had been involved in a crash during the 5 years prior to the study compared with none of those who screened low risk. Only three participants (1 high risk) voluntarily surrendered their driver's licenses after the assessment, and one participant in the in-depth interviews reported that the assessment influenced the decision to stop driving. There may be some benefit in using driving record history and assessment results to determine driving risk impairment level. However, more research is needed to determine the best combination of tools to predict risk level. How to best communicate risk levels remains to be determined, although results from the older drivers in this study underscore the need for great sensitivity when identifying areas of concern about driving ability. © The Author(s) 2011.


McConomy S.,CU ICAR | Brooks J.,CU ICAR | Venhovens P.,CU ICAR | Xi Y.,CU ICAR | And 4 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

The research objective was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Improper selection of driver's seat position may impact safety during a crash event and affect one's capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle's controls, such as steering wheel, accelerator, brake, clutch, and gear selector lever. Because of the stature changes associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of gender and age terms that would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers. Participants included 97 older drivers over the age of 60 and 20 younger drivers between the ages of 30 to 39. Data were collected within the driver's personal vehicle to obtain natural, driver selected seat position. A hierarchical, multivariable, linear regression technique was used to improve upon the current SAE J4004 driver selected seat position equation. Results show that the addition of a gender term to the SAE J4004 recommended model for predicting driver selected seat position of any driver provided an insignificant contribution to the model; whereas, the addition of an age term to the same SAE J4004 is a statistically significant contribution to the model, thereby yielding a 2.5% increase in the fit of the model and accuracy of the predicted seat position. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.


Staplin L.,TransAnalytics LLC | Gish K.W.,TransAnalytics LLC | Lococo K.H.,TransAnalytics LLC | Joyce J.J.,TransAnalytics LLC | Sifrit K.J.,U.S.DOT National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

A study sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration performed functional assessments on approximately 700 drivers age 70 and older who presented for license renewal in urban, suburban, and rural offices of the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration. This volunteer sample received a small compensation for study participation, with an assurance that their license status would not be affected by the results. A comparison with all older drivers who visited the same sites on the same days indicated that the study sample was representative of Maryland older drivers with respect to age and prior driving safety indices. Relationships between drivers' scores on a computer touchscreen version of the Maze Test and prospective crash and serious moving violation experience were analyzed. Results identified specific mazes as highly significant predictors of future safety risk for older drivers, with a particular focus on non-intersection crashes. Study findings indicate that performance on Maze Tests was predictive of prospective crashes and may be useful, as a complement to other, established cognitive screening tools, in identifying at-risk older drivers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Lococo K.H.,TransAnalytics LLC | Decina L.E.,TransAnalytics LLC | Branche J.,Medical Review Services | Wagner E.M.,U.S.DOT National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Journal of Safety Research | Year: 2013

Introduction Medically at-risk drivers come to the attention of licensing authorities through referrals from a variety of sources, including: physicians, family members, court systems, and law enforcement. A recently sponsored project by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration examined a training intervention for law enforcement to increase their awareness of medical conditions and medications that impair driving and the procedures for reporting these drivers in Virginia. Method A component of this project included an evaluation of the medical review process and licensing outcomes for 100 drivers randomly selected from a pool of over 1,000 drivers referred from law enforcement officers to the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles over a 6-month period in 2007 and 2008 prior to any training program intervention. Results Key findings from the evaluation of 100 drivers referred for medical review by law enforcement were as follows. Over two-thirds of the drivers came to the attention of the referring officer because they were involved in a crash. The most prevalent indications of a medical condition or functional impairment provided by law enforcement for these referrals were: loss of consciousness, blackout, or seizures (28%); disorientation, confusion, and mental disability (16%); and physical impairments (8%). Eighty-eight percent of the drivers received some type of licensing action (e.g., restriction, suspension, or periodic review). Only 12% of the referred drivers did not require any licensing action. Conclusions Law enforcement provides a vital role in the identification and referral of medically impaired drivers to licensing authorities for reexamination. Training programs can inform law enforcement officers of the signs of medical impairment (both on-road behavior, and physical and psychological clues once a driver has been pulled over), and procedures for reporting their observations and concern for safety to licensing authorities. Impact on Industry Reexamination of drivers with functional and medical impairments and any consequent restrictions and/or periodic reporting requirements can improve the safety and mobility of these drivers, and the motoring public as well. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Staplin L.,TransAnalytics LLC | Gish K.W.,TransAnalytics LLC | Sifrit K.J.,NHTSA
Journal of Safety Research | Year: 2014

Introduction A computer-based version of an established neuropsychological paper-and-pencil assessment tool, the Trail-Making Test, was applied with approximately 700 drivers aged 70 years and older in offices of the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration. Method This was a volunteer sample that received a small compensation for study participation, with an assurance that their license status would not be affected by the results. Analyses revealed that the study sample was representative of Maryland older drivers with respect to age and indices of prior driving safety. The relationship between drivers' scores on the Trail-Making Test and prospective crash experience was analyzed using a new outcome measure that explicitly takes into account error responses as well as correct responses, the error-compensated completion time. Results For the only reliable predictor of crash risk, Trail-Making Test Part B, this measure demonstrated a modest gain in specificity and was a more significant predictor of future safety risk than the simple time-to-completion measure. Impact on industry Improved specificity and the potential for autonomous test administration are particular advantages of this measure for use with large populations, in settings such as health care or driver licensing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Eichelberger A.H.,Insurance Institute for Highway Safety | Decina L.E.,TransAnalytics LLC | Jermakian J.S.,Insurance Institute for Highway Safety | McCartt A.T.,Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Journal of Safety Research | Year: 2014

Objective Despite the safety benefits, many parents do not use top tethers with forward-facing child restraints. Detailed information was collected about why parents are not using tethers. Methods The sample included 479 drivers who had forward-facing child restraints installed in passenger vehicles equipped with tether anchors. The survey was conducted primarily at shopping centers, recreation facilities, child care facilities, car seat check events, and health care facilities in mostly suburban areas surrounding Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Fredericksburg (VA), and Seattle. Drivers were surveyed about their knowledge and use of tethers and experience with child restraints. Tether use was observed to verify whether tethers were being used correctly. Results Fifty-six percent of forward-facing child restraints were installed with the tether; 39% were installed with the tether used correctly. The tether was used with 71% of LATCH lower anchor installations and 33% of seat belt installations. Drivers who installed child restraints without tethers most often said they did not know about the tether or how to use it. Conclusions Although the tether use rate was slightly higher in the current research than in previous studies, many parents and caregivers still use forward-facing child restraints without attaching the tether. Because the main problem is lack of awareness of the tether or how to use it, public education should focus specifically on the safety benefits of tethers and how to use them. Practical applications Information about why caregivers fail to use top tethers is potentially useful to child restraint manufacturers, child passenger safety technicians, and others who work with parents to improve motor vehicle safety. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Dickerson A.E.,East Carolina University | Davis E.S.,AOTA | Staplin L.,TransAnalytics LLC
Occupational Therapy in Health Care | Year: 2014

Communication through a shared understanding is essential with multidisciplinary groups. The objective of this paper is to discuss and illustrate how licensing authorities, researchers, practitioners (clinicians), and consumers do not share the same understanding of key terminology related to safe and competent driving. Ongoing and planned work that aims to develop a resource to promote shared understanding of terms relating to driver testing, evaluation, and rehabilitation is then highlighted. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


PubMed | TransAnalytics LLC and Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Type: | Journal: Journal of safety research | Year: 2014

Despite the safety benefits, many parents do not use top tethers with forward-facing child restraints. Detailed information was collected about why parents are not using tethers.The sample included 479 drivers who had forward-facing child restraints installed in passenger vehicles equipped with tether anchors. The survey was conducted primarily at shopping centers, recreation facilities, child care facilities, car seat check events, and health care facilities in mostly suburban areas surrounding Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Fredericksburg (VA), and Seattle. Drivers were surveyed about their knowledge and use of tethers and experience with child restraints. Tether use was observed to verify whether tethers were being used correctly.Fifty-six percent of forward-facing child restraints were installed with the tether; 39% were installed with the tether used correctly. The tether was used with 71% of LATCH lower anchor installations and 33% of seat belt installations. Drivers who installed child restraints without tethers most often said they did not know about the tether or how to use it.Although the tether use rate was slightly higher in the current research than in previous studies, many parents and caregivers still use forward-facing child restraints without attaching the tether. Because the main problem is lack of awareness of the tether or how to use it, public education should focus specifically on the safety benefits of tethers and how to use them.Information about why caregivers fail to use top tethers is potentially useful to child restraint manufacturers, child passenger safety technicians, and others who work with parents to improve motor vehicle safety.


PubMed | TransAnalytics LLC
Type: | Journal: Accident; analysis and prevention | Year: 2012

A study sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration performed functional assessments on approximately 700 drivers age 70 and older who presented for license renewal in urban, suburban, and rural offices of the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration. This volunteer sample received a small compensation for study participation, with an assurance that their license status would not be affected by the results. A comparison with all older drivers who visited the same sites on the same days indicated that the study sample was representative of Maryland older drivers with respect to age and prior driving safety indices. Relationships between drivers scores on a computer touchscreen version of the Maze Test and prospective crash and serious moving violation experience were analyzed. Results identified specific mazes as highly significant predictors of future safety risk for older drivers, with a particular focus on non-intersection crashes. Study findings indicate that performance on Maze Tests was predictive of prospective crashes and may be useful, as a complement to other, established cognitive screening tools, in identifying at-risk older drivers.

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