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Wang H.-B.,Trans World University | Wang H.-B.,Nanhua University | Chen M.-S.,Nanhua University | Li M.-J.,Nanhua University
International Journal of Information and Management Sciences | Year: 2016

The optimal model was mainly constructed for the products, such as real estates, amusement park, or major furniture which themselves cannot be moved or worn to reveal to other consumers in public, to explain their optimal promotional pricing strategy. The study adopted the dual sources of the diffusion power, the number of walk-in potential consumers and the price level of the product, in the extended Bass Diffusion Model. Given periods of [0, T) and [T, T), T < T, and T maybe oo when a firm attempts to decide price Po within [0, T) and price PT within [T, T), respectively, to achieve the goal of maximizing discounted profit in the interval [0, T), the characteristics of its optimal solution (P0 ∗, PT ∗) at each period were rigorously derived and profoundly discussed. This two-period model pricing could be extended to an infinite multiple-period optimal pricing model to become the issue of price control. The study would further conclude that, after a new product is initialized, its price should decline with time to take advantage of it with exhausting the consumer surplus of consumers.


Chao J.,National Yang Ming University | Liao J.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Peng W.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Lee M.-S.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOSEtOH). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOSEtOH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOSEtOH exhibited antioxidative activity using the DPPH assay (IC50, 0.743 mg/mL). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of MOSEtOH was five times higher that that of vitamin C. MOSEtOH was also found to inhibit pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, and carrageenan inflammation. Treatment with MOSEtOH (100 and 500 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels compared with the CCl4-treated group. Histological evaluation showed that MOSEtOH reduced the degree of liver injury, including vacuolization, inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of MOSEtOH were found to be related to the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver and decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and nitric oxide (NO) contents. Our findings suggest that MOSEtOH has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. These effects support the use of MOSEtOH for relieving pain and inflammation in folk medicine. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Fang W.-T.,National Taiwan Normal University | Huang C.-W.,Kainan University | Chou J.-Y.,National Changhua University of Education | Cheng B.-Y.,Trans World University | Shih S.-S.,National Taiwan University
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching's ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithms (GA). We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes. © 2015 by the authors.


Chen Y.-C.,National Taiwan University | Chen C.-H.,Trans World University | Sue C.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen W.-Z.,National Cheng Kung University
Proceedings - 2011 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery, CyberC 2011 | Year: 2011

Streaming service is becoming more popular for many users to access multimedia content. With different demand of clients and different service charge given, streaming servers must provide different levels of quality of service (QoS) and apply more effective resource management scheme. This paper proposes an enhanced model of harmonic proportional bandwidth allocation scheme to re-utilize the released bandwidth. Our proposed strategy uses one part (defined as β) of the released bandwidth to raise service quality of clients and increase total bandwidth utilization. The rest part (i.e., 1-β) of the released bandwidth reduces the delay time of clients by serving more clients who are not allowed to be served originally, where β is between 0 and 1. In the simulation, we discuss what the value of β is better when simultaneously considering the two factors including the total bandwidth utilization and the delay time of users, respectively. Furthermore, our proposed strategy is validated through the simulation that the high utilization and lower delay time properties for streaming servers can be obtained no matter whether the probability of clients that leave services is high or low even in different request scheduling policies. © 2011 IEEE.


Chien H.-L.,Wufeng University | Chi J.-H.,Wufeng University | Wu S.-H.,Trans World University
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science | Year: 2013

This paper examines as a study case a hotel fire accident that resulted in the some of the most serious casualties in Taiwan's history. Examination of the official fire investigation report allows us to determine the fire origination point. Experimental data by NIST for a queen-size foam mattress is used as the input parameter to simulate the initial fuel for the fire. The latest Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) program from NIST is used, referring to NFPA921 regulations. The personnel evacuation time and time variants for various fire hazard factors, such as temperature, smoke layer height, and carbon monoxide density, are taken into account. These are used to provide a reconstructive analysis in order to determine the reason for such a high number of casualties.


Hsu Y.-W.,Chung Shan Medical University | Tsai C.-F.,Trans World University | Chen W.-K.,Chung Shan Medical University | Chen W.-K.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Lutein and zeaxanthin were extracted from daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) flowers using supercritical fluid extraction-carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) at a temperature range of 50-95 °C and pressure range of 300-600 bar. The extracts were analysed by HPLC with a C30 column and an isocratic solvent system: methanol/methyl-tert-butyl ether = 86/14 (v/v). Moreover, the antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated by a 2,2-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and a chemiluminescence assay to measure the scavenging activity of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. The optimal lutein and zeaxanthin extraction could be achieved at 80 °C and 600 bar, and the extraction pressure was the most important parameter for SFE-CO2. In addition, the extracts had significantly higher antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assays. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen R.-T.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Liao Y.-H.,Trans World University | Huang M.-S.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Chou J.-C.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits, EDSSC 2015 | Year: 2015

In this study, the arrayed flexible glucose biosensor modified by graphene (GR) and integrated with the microfluidic device was developed. In order to prepare the glucose biosensor, graphene solution was first cast on the ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) electrode which were fabricated by radio frequency sputtering and screen-printed technique. Then, the composite of glucose oxidase (GOx) and nafion was dropped on RuO2 to complete preparation of the RuO2/Graphene/GOx-Nafion glucose biosensor. Finally, the modified glucose biosensor was combined with the microfluidic device to implement the glucose measurement at different flow rates from 5 μL/min to 30 μL/min. The experimental results showed that the RuO2/Graphene/GOx-Nafion glucose biosensor had higher sensitivity at 15 μL/min optimum flow rate, and the average sensitivity and linearity were 11.647 mV/mM and 0.995, respectively. Compare with other glucose biosensor measured at static conditions, the results demonstrated that the glucose biosensor had superior performance at the dynamic measurement. © 2015 IEEE.


Chen J.-S.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Liao Y.-H.,Trans World University | Huang M.-S.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Chou J.-C.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits, EDSSC 2015 | Year: 2015

In this study, we used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as substrate and we combined with screen-printed technology to achieve miniaturization of sensor. In order to avoid damaging for single sensing window, the sensor device had six sensing windows on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate in this study. The six sensing windows could provide six measurement values, which could provide accurate measurement results. The sensing properties of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) sensing membranes were changed by different sputtering parameters. Therefore, we changed Ar/O2 flow ratios of IGZO sensing membranes by the radio frequency sputtering system, which investigated about the sensing properties of differential reference electrode arrayed flexible IGZO pH sensor for different Ar/O2 flow ratios. Furthermore, we also researched on hysteresis effect and drift effect. The hysteresis experiments were carried out by two cycles of pH values, which were pH 7-11-7-3-7 and pH 7-3-7-11-7, respectively. The drift experiments were carried out by immersing IGZO sensor in pH3, pH7, pH11 buffer solutions for 12 hours, respectively. According to the experimental results, we found that Ar/O2 flow ratio of IGZO pH sensing membranes was set at 16/2 (in seem) by radio frequency sputtering system, which can have better performance. The sensitivity and linearity of the IGZO pH sensor were 54.737 mV/pH and 0.994 in Ar/O2 flow ambience of 16/2 (in sccm), respectively. The hysteresis values were 8.56 mV and 25.01 mV in cycles of pH 7-11-7-3-7 and pH 7-3-7-11-7 in Ar/O2 flow ambience of 16/2, respectively. The drift values were 1.06 mV/hr, 3.64 mV/hr, 6.04 mV/hr in pH3, pH7, pH11 buffer solutions from 5 to 12 hours in Ar/O2 flow ambience of 16/2, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that IGZO sensing membrane was successfully applied to detect hydrogen ions. © 2015 IEEE.


Chou J.-C.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Cheng T.-Y.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Ye G.-C.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Liao Y.-H.,Trans World University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Sensors Journal | Year: 2013

In this paper, an arrayed glucose biosensor is integrated to the poly-dimethylsiloxane microchannel as the microfluidic device for measuring the characteristics of the arrayed glucose biosensor at dynamical conditions. The radio frequency sputtering system and screen printed technology are used to fabricate the arrayed glucose biosensor. Furthermore, the computer numerical control technique is used to fabricate the microchannel mold. The polypyrrole differential reference electrode has good stable characteristics and provides a stable potential for the arrayed pH sensor. At static conditions, the average sensitivity and linearity of the arrayed pH sensor are 57.85 mV/pH and 0.977, respectively. And at dynamical conditions with 20 mL/min flow rate, the average sensitivity and linearity of the arrayed pH sensor are 66.73 mV/pH and 0.993, respectively. The arrayed pH sensor is dropped glucose sensing membranes as an arrayed glucose biosensor. The arrayed glucose biosensor is measured in different glucose concentrations at static conditions, and the average sensitivity and linearity of the arrayed glucose biosensor are 11.84 mV (100mg/dl)-1 and 0.995, respectively. At dynamical conditions with 25 mL/min flow rate, the average sensitivity and linearity of the arrayed glucose biosensor are 30.41 mV(100mg/dl)-1 and 0.975, respectively. © 2013 IEEE.


Tsai L.-F.,Trans World University
Journal of Convergence Information Technology | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of job characteristics and organizational commitment of Taiwan Technician expatriates working in mainland China according to gender. The methods of data analysis used in this study consisted of exploratory factor analysis (EFA), internal consistency reliability, and One-way ANOVA and t-test were used to assess the different variables according to gender of Taiwan Technician expatriates working in mainland China. Findings indicated that the variables of job characteristics, and organizational commitment were significantly different according to gender. Further study need to replicate the research in different countries in order to explore the relationships among job characteristics, and organizational commitment of technician expatriates was recommended.

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