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Moner-Girona M.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Ghanadan R.,University of California at Berkeley | Ghanadan R.,Economy Energy | Solano-Peralta M.,Trama TecnoAmbiental | And 4 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Following the successful Feed-in Tariffs (FiTs) system worldwide, few countries have implemented FiTs explicitly tailored for off-grid or mini-grid systems. This study takes an integrated approach to examine the feasibility of an off-grid Feed-in Tariff (off-FiT) for existing and new remote mini-grids in Tanzania, using a combination of geographical analysis, technical, economic and institutional assessments. Based on detailed modelling of two community off-grid cases, (i) PV-diesel and (ii) mini-hydro, we identify least-cost rural electrification options that make solar and mini-hydro energy competitive with diesel generators and potential effect of the support scheme on rural electrification plans. In the first case, we illustrate where the off-FiT complements diesel generation of an existing mini-grid (PV-diesel). In the second case (mini-hydro), we illustrate conditions where the off-FiT policy brings mini-hydro generation to non-electrified communities and sells renewable electricity directly to new customers. Currently, Tanzania has Standardized Power Purchase (SPP) rates, which target generators connected to the national grid and distribution systems of mini-grids or isolated grids. We found for the off-FiT tariff the total amount needed to support the same number of customers by solar and hydro-mini grids versus diesel would be of 31.5 million US$, or a premium of 0.11 US$/kWh to the present current SPPs tariff of 0.24 US$/kWh for PV. We also found that a technology specific FiT tariff would be most suitable to attract national and international investors by providing a rate of return that compensates the risk of the investment. The overall support is comparable to the 36 million US$ that the government currently subsidizes and allocates to diesel mini-grids in country, and this shows the potential for a long-term renewable energy strategy for mini-grid areas. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Arranz P.,International Consultancy Europe Unit | Anzizu M.,International Consultancy Europe Unit | Pineau A.,Renewable Energy and Hybrid System Engineer | Marwede M.,TU Berlin | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Waste and Resource Management

This paper presents the measures taken in the demonstration of the photovoltaic case study developed within the European project 'Towards zero waste in industrial networks' (Zerowin), integrating the D4R (Design for recycling, repair, refurbishment and reuse) criteria at both system and industrial network level. The demonstration is divided into three phases. The first phase concerns the development of a D4R photovoltaic concept, the second phase focused on the development of a specific component of photovoltaic systems and the third phase was the demonstration of the D4R design in two complete photovoltaic systems (grid-connected and stand-alone). This paper includes a description of the installed photovoltaic systems, including a brief summary at component level of the lithium ion battery system and the D4R power conditioning system developed for the pilot installations. Additionally, industrial symbioses within the network associated with the photovoltaic systems and the production model for the network are described. Source

Marnay C.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Kroposki B.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Mao M.,Hefei University of Technology | Xu H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 12 more authors.
IEEE Electrification Magazine

The current status of international microgrid research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) was on display and open for review and debate in Tianjin, China, 13-14 November 2014 at the Tianjin 2014 Symposium on Microgrids. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (U.S. DOE-OE) and the Energy Foundation, organized by Tianjin University, Hefei University of Technology, and supported by other generous sponsors, the tenth in the influential series of microgrid symposiums was held at the Geneva Grand Hotel. Broad international participation was achieved, with 106 attendees from 18 countries (Figure 1). There were 26 technical presentations by speakers from around the globe as well as a panel session on standards development and technical tours to the Tianjin Eco-City sustainable city development, Tianjin University's Microgrid Laboratory, and the Yanqing dc microgrid near Beijing. The formal welcome was offered by Zhipeng Liang, deputy director of the Renewable Energy Department, Chinese National Energy Administration. © 2013 IEEE. Source

Arranz P.,Trama TecnoAmbiental | Tarrago J.,Trama TecnoAmbiental | Vallve X.,Trama TecnoAmbiental | Marwede M.,TU Berlin | And 7 more authors.
Electronics Goes Green 2012+, ECG 2012 - Joint International Conference and Exhibition, Proceedings

This present paper presents the measures that are taken in the demonstration of the photovoltaic (PV) case study developed within the European project 'Towards Zero Waste in Industrial Networks (ZeroWIN)' integrating the D4R (Design for Recycling, Repair, Refurbishment and Reuse) criteria. The demonstration is divided in three phases: the first phase concerns the development of a D4R PV system and related industrial networks; the second phase focuses on the development of a specific component of PV systems, a power conditioning prototype, finished in April 2012; the third and final phase will be the demonstration of the D4R design in two complete PV systems (grid-connected and off-grid). The paper includes the description of the developed power conditioning, a description of the Li-ion battery system and the description of industrial symbioses to be demonstrated within the final PV power plants. © 2012 Fraunhofer IZM. Source

Jacobs D.,Free University of Berlin | Rickerson W.,Meister Consultants Group Inc. | Flynn H.,Meister Consultants Group Inc. | Becker-Birck C.,Meister Consultants Group Inc. | Solano-Peralta M.,Trama TecnoAmbiental
Energy Policy

Renewable energy is becoming a priority for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries because of energy challenges such as demand growth, high dependence on imported fossil fuels, and climate change. As of 2010, 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. Some of the LAC countries, namely Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. FITs are long-term, guaranteed purchase agreements for green electricity at a price that can provide project developers a reasonable return on investment. FITs are increasingly popular because if designed well, they can mitigate investor risk in renewables. This article presents a low-risk FIT design and then uses this design to benchmark the existing LAC region FITs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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