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This research was carried out to determine soil residual effects on stand establishment rate and yield in the rotation crops soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), winter oil seed rape (WOSR) (Brassica napus L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) following Intervix® (33g Imazamox + 15g Imazapyr) spraying in Clearfield® (CL) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production. The experiments were conducted at the Trakya Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne between 2007 and 2009 using a randomized complete block design (stripe plots) with three replications. Five crops were evaluated in crop rotation after spraying Intervix® on Clearfield® sunflower. As the experiment materials, we used the sunflower hybrid Sanay-CL and the cultivars Gelibolu (soft winter wheat, SWW), Bolayir (barley), Elvis (winter oil seed rapeseed, WOSR), Brasco (maize), and Leyla (sugar beet). Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization were applied according to soil analysis recommendations. Observations were made of the number of plants emerged per m2, stand establishment, yield, time to flowering, time to physiological maturity, plant height, root length, head diameter, etc., according to plants included in crop rotations. Based on statistical analysis of the data from crop rotation experiments, CL sunflower plots followed by wheat, barley, and maize were not negatively affected to a significant degree by Intervix® residues in terms of stand establishment and seed yield in either year. In the first year of crop rotation, however, when planting WOSR four months after Intervix® application on CL sunflower plots, stand establishment and seed yield decreased significantly, by 35.7 and 23.7%, respectively. When planting sugar beet nine months after Intervix® application on CL sunflower plots, stand establishment and beet yield decreased by 26.7 and 11.6%, respectively. However, in the second year in the same crop rotations plots, stand establishment and yield of WOSR and sugar beet planted after CL sunflower were not affected significantly by Intervix® residues. Source

Suzer S.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute
Helia | Year: 2010

This research was carried out to determine the seed yield and some yield components of two dwarf hybrids as compared to one standard-height sunflower hybrid (Heitanthus annuus L.) at different nitrogen rates and planting densities. The study was carried out under natural rainfed conditions at the Thrace Agricultural Research Institute In Edirne-Turkey between 1999 and 2001. The experiments were set up in split-split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot treatments were three different-height sunflower hybrids, DW-I, DW-2, and Trakya-80. The sub plots were three levels of nitrogen, 0, 60, and 120 kg N/ha. The sub-sub plots were three planting densities, 10 × 70 (142,850 plants/ha), 15 × 70 (95,230 plants/ ha), and 20 × 70 cm (71,430 plants/ha). Based on marginal economic analyses, the economically optimal seed yield per hectare was obtained at 50 kg N/ ha for DW-I and at 80 kg N/ha for DW-2 and Trakya-80. In all three hybrids, increasing plant densities decreased 1000-seed weight, hull percentage, and head diameter but increased test weight in natural rainfed conditions. The highest seed yield in both dwarf hybrids was obtained with the spacing of 15 × 70 cm (95,230 plants/ha). The results of this research show that nitrogen and plant density have significant effects on seed yield and some yield components of different-height sunflower hybrids. Source

Karaaslan D.,South East Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute | Hatipoglu A.,South East Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute | Turk Z.,South East Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute | Kaya Y.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute
Helia | Year: 2010

This study was conducted in 2009 at the experiment field of the South East Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute in Diyarbakir in order to determine potential sunflower cultivars for irrigated conditions in the region. The cultivars Sanay, P-4223, Alhasa, Pactol, Armada, Sirena, C-70165, Tunca, Isera, Tarsan-1018, and Tr-3080 were tested in the experiment. Important characteristics such as plant height, head diameter, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil content and oil yield were investigated. According to the results, statistical differences were found between the cultivars for 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil content and oil yield at the 5% probability level. The highest seed yield per hectare (4,110.7 kg) was obtained from Pioneer-4223, while the highest oil yield per hectare (139.3 kg) was produced by C-70165. The lowest oil yield per hectare was found in Tr-3080 (610.6 kg), while the lowest seed yield per hectare was found in Tr-3080 (1,790.6 kg). The highest oil content (40.1%) was obtained from Armada and the lowest from Pioneer-4223 with 34.4%. The highest 1000-seed weight (83.7 g) was obtained from Isera and the lowest from Armada with 56.1 g. The highest plant height (249.9 cm) was obtained from C- 70165 and the lowest from Tr-3080 (181.4 cm). The largest head diameter was found in Tunca (17.4 cm) and the smallest in Armada (13.9 cm). Results from this study indicate that Pioneer-4223, Pactol, Isera. C-70165, Tarsan, and Armada can be potential cultivar in terms of yield and the other important characters investigated under the irrigated conditions in Diyarbakir. Source

Phattarakul N.,Chiang Mai University | Rerkasem B.,Chiang Mai University | Li L.J.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu L.H.,Zhejiang University | And 9 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Background: Increasing zinc (Zn) concentration of rice seed has potential benefits for human nutrition and health. Enhanced levels of Zn in grain also contributes greatly to crop production through better germination and seedling vigor of rice plants grown on soils with limited Zn supply. Aims and methods: This study evaluated the effect of soil and/or foliar Zn fertilizer application on grain yield and grain Zn concentration of rice grown in 17 field trials conducted in 2008 to 2010 in China, India, Lao PDR, Thailand and Turkey on soils ranging in pH from 4. 8 to 8. 8 and DTPA- extractable Zn from 0. 5 to 6. 5 mg kg-1. Results: Zinc fertilization had little effect on rice grain yield with the exception of increases of up to 10 % in some locations in China and India. As an average of all trials, Zn application increased grain yield by about 5 %. Grain Zn concentrations were, however, more effectively increased by Zn fertilization, especially with foliar Zn applications. On average, Zn concentration in brown rice (whole caryopsis with husk removed) was increased by 25 % and 32 % by foliar and foliar + soil Zn applications, respectively, and only 2. 4 % by soil Zn application. The Zn concentration of un-husked rice (whole grain with husk), which was increased by 66 % by foliar Zn, showed a close association with the Zn in brown and white rice, indicating a possible penetration of Zn from the husk into the inner layers of the rice endosperm. Increase in grain Zn concentration by foliar Zn spray was significantly affected by the timing of the foliar application. More distinct increases in grain Zn by foliar Zn application were achieved when Zn was applied after flowering time, e. g., at early milk plus dough stages. Conclusions: Foliar Zn spray offers a practical and useful means for an effective biofortification of rice grain with Zn. This practice consistently and significantly contributed to increases in grain Zn of rice irrespective of cultivars, environmental conditions and management practices in 5 different countries. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Aydin I.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Gokoglu N.,Akdeniz University
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature and time of freezing on lipid oxidation in anchovy during frozen storage. The fish were frozen at three different temperatures (-20, -40, and -80°C). During the freezing, temperature of the thermal center of fish was measured using a thermo couple and then time of freezing was calculated. Frozen fish were stored in a deep freezer at -18°C for 6 months. The highest freezing velocity and the shortest freezing time were observed for anchovies frozen at -80°C. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbutiric acid (TBA), para-anisidine (p-Av), conjugated diene (CD), and free fatty acid (FFA) values were significantly affected by freezing temperature. Low freezing temperature resulted in low oxidation level. Oxidation levels significantly increased during the storage. The lowest values were determined in the samples frozen at -80°C. The best freezing temperature in terms of delaying of lipid oxidation was found to be -80°C. During frozen storage, lipid oxidation is an important issue for fatty fish, anchovy. During frozen storage, lipid oxidation is an important issue for fatty fish, anchovy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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