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This research was carried out to determine soil residual effects on stand establishment rate and yield in the rotation crops soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), winter oil seed rape (WOSR) (Brassica napus L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) following Intervix® (33g Imazamox + 15g Imazapyr) spraying in Clearfield® (CL) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production. The experiments were conducted at the Trakya Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne between 2007 and 2009 using a randomized complete block design (stripe plots) with three replications. Five crops were evaluated in crop rotation after spraying Intervix® on Clearfield® sunflower. As the experiment materials, we used the sunflower hybrid Sanay-CL and the cultivars Gelibolu (soft winter wheat, SWW), Bolayir (barley), Elvis (winter oil seed rapeseed, WOSR), Brasco (maize), and Leyla (sugar beet). Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization were applied according to soil analysis recommendations. Observations were made of the number of plants emerged per m2, stand establishment, yield, time to flowering, time to physiological maturity, plant height, root length, head diameter, etc., according to plants included in crop rotations. Based on statistical analysis of the data from crop rotation experiments, CL sunflower plots followed by wheat, barley, and maize were not negatively affected to a significant degree by Intervix® residues in terms of stand establishment and seed yield in either year. In the first year of crop rotation, however, when planting WOSR four months after Intervix® application on CL sunflower plots, stand establishment and seed yield decreased significantly, by 35.7 and 23.7%, respectively. When planting sugar beet nine months after Intervix® application on CL sunflower plots, stand establishment and beet yield decreased by 26.7 and 11.6%, respectively. However, in the second year in the same crop rotations plots, stand establishment and yield of WOSR and sugar beet planted after CL sunflower were not affected significantly by Intervix® residues.

Phattarakul N.,Chiang Mai University | Rerkasem B.,Chiang Mai University | Li L.J.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu L.H.,Zhejiang University | And 9 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Background: Increasing zinc (Zn) concentration of rice seed has potential benefits for human nutrition and health. Enhanced levels of Zn in grain also contributes greatly to crop production through better germination and seedling vigor of rice plants grown on soils with limited Zn supply. Aims and methods: This study evaluated the effect of soil and/or foliar Zn fertilizer application on grain yield and grain Zn concentration of rice grown in 17 field trials conducted in 2008 to 2010 in China, India, Lao PDR, Thailand and Turkey on soils ranging in pH from 4. 8 to 8. 8 and DTPA- extractable Zn from 0. 5 to 6. 5 mg kg-1. Results: Zinc fertilization had little effect on rice grain yield with the exception of increases of up to 10 % in some locations in China and India. As an average of all trials, Zn application increased grain yield by about 5 %. Grain Zn concentrations were, however, more effectively increased by Zn fertilization, especially with foliar Zn applications. On average, Zn concentration in brown rice (whole caryopsis with husk removed) was increased by 25 % and 32 % by foliar and foliar + soil Zn applications, respectively, and only 2. 4 % by soil Zn application. The Zn concentration of un-husked rice (whole grain with husk), which was increased by 66 % by foliar Zn, showed a close association with the Zn in brown and white rice, indicating a possible penetration of Zn from the husk into the inner layers of the rice endosperm. Increase in grain Zn concentration by foliar Zn spray was significantly affected by the timing of the foliar application. More distinct increases in grain Zn by foliar Zn application were achieved when Zn was applied after flowering time, e. g., at early milk plus dough stages. Conclusions: Foliar Zn spray offers a practical and useful means for an effective biofortification of rice grain with Zn. This practice consistently and significantly contributed to increases in grain Zn of rice irrespective of cultivars, environmental conditions and management practices in 5 different countries. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Semerci A.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Kaya Y.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Peker K.,Selcuk University | Sahin I.,Trakya Birlik | Citak N.,Trakya Birlik
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2011

Turkey exist among the top ten countries of world sunflower production that approximately 60% of sunflower areas is in Trakya Region which is European part of Turkey. The agricultural enterprises in Trakya Region have experienced due to intensive sunflower production, and this region is the main area of country's vegetable oil industry. Although the sunflower yield is above the world average in agricultural enterprises in Trakya Region where is selected as a field of research, irrigated sunflower areas is only 2.79% of cultivated areas. Sunflower exists at second rank (42%) after the wheat in the research area. The adoption rates of farmers to new sunflower varieties including herbicide resistant (IMI) and the genetically resistant ones to broomrape are over 90%. While the average sunflower yield as 1.794 ton / ha and water productivity as 345.15 g / m 3 were measured in the research area, as 1.929 ton / ha seed yield and as 369.14 g / m 3 water productivity was determined in genetically resistant varieties. On the other hand, the revenue of sunflower was calculated 834.55 US$ per ha in the research area and a positive relationship between the revenue from sunflower and the water efficiency of the varieties in the study. It is revealed in the research results that among provinces as well as per unit area yields of sunflower varieties and water productivity levels exhibited statistically differences even though they had the similar climate structure and production technologies. It is concluded in the study that sunflower production should be planted in irrigated conditions, use of the cultivars that have strong reactions to irrigation and high oil content will increase farmer income as well as will reduce the Turkey's current oil deficit.

Unan R.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Sezer I.,Ondokuz Mayis University | Sahin M.,The Central Research Institute for Field Crops | Mur L.A.J.,Aberystwyth University
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2013

In this study, the effects of the plant growth regulator trinexapac-ethyl (TE) combined with different sowing densities on fieldgrown rice (Oryza sativa L.) plant length, lodging, and grain yield were evaluated over 2 growing seasons. Two different rice cultivars (Karadeniz and Osmancik-97), 3 different sowing densities (400, 500, and 600 seeds m-2), and 4 different doses of TE (0, 100, 200, and 300 g ai ha-1) were compared. The experiments were designed in a randomized block design in factorial ordering with 3 replicates. An increase in sowing density led to an increase of lodging, but it did not have a significant impact on plant length and grain yield. There was a significant correlation between lodging and plant length. A sowing density of 500 seeds m-2 is the optimum value among all sowing densities, and the highest yield was obtained from Osmancik-97 among all the cultivars. Irrespective of genotype and sowing density, treatments with 100 and 200, but not 300, g TE ai ha-1 increased rice yield. All doses of TE reduced lodging and plant length. By regression analyses, the optimal TE dose was predicted to be 170 g ha-1. © TÜBİTAK.

Beser N.,Trakya University | Surek H.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Sahin M.,Central Research Institute for Field Crops
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to determine which resistance genes to the rice blast pathogen (Magnaporthe grisea ) were effective in the field in Turkey in 2011 and 2013, in order to determine the most promising genes for use in resistance breeding program. In 2011,21 monogenic lines in the genetic background of 'Lijiangxintuanheigu' (LTH) targeting 16 different resistant genes, 1 line harbouring Pi40 gene together with susceptible checks 'LTH ', 'C039', and local susceptible checks 'Diyarbakir yerli' and 'Sariçeltik', and additional some cultivars were tested in 10 locations. In 2013,29 monogenic LTH lines targeting 24 blast resistant genes and 2 lines harbouring the Pi40 gene were tested in 2 locations. We observed that, Pil, Pi7, Pi9, Pil2, Pi20, Pi40, Pib, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, and Piz-5 genes provided resistance in all rice locations tested. Moreover, Pi5(t), Pita, Pita-2, Pit, and Pi-z provided moderate resistance in Turkey. Pi7, Pi9, PU2, Pi20, Pi40, Pi-b, Pik-h, Pikm, Pik-p, and Piz-5 genes can be used alone or in different combinations. To obtain durable resistance to rice blast in Turkey, we recommend breeding cultivars containing different stacked combinations of afore mentioned genes. Pil, Pi5(t), Pita, Pita-2, Pit, and Piz genes, when added to such stacks, could further improve blast resistance in rice cultivars for Turkey.

Semerci A.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Kaya Y.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Sahin I.,Trakya Birlik | Citak N.,Trakya Birlik
Helia | Year: 2011

In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 60% of the production is carried out in the Thrace region. Therefore agricultural enterprises in Thrace, situated in the European part of Turkey, have become masters in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region owing to the produced raw material. In this study, we aim to investigate the yield and income of the enterprises producing sunflower in Thrace Region in Turkey, as well as to discover whether the factors affecting the production are different. In the final section of the study, cost analysis is explained in detail on the basis of the cities and sizes of sunflower production area. The data used in this study were collected from 571 agricultural enterprises which were chosen to represent the whole Thrace region with the Stratified Random Sampling method. At the end of the study, although the cities where the study was conducted have the same climate and production technologies, it is found that in addition to the income and yield obtained per unit area, the terms of land rent, pesticide, fertilizing and seed, which directly affect the cost, show differences among cities statistically.

Beser N.,Trakya University | Surek H.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Sahin S.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Kaya R.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

This study was carried out at Trakya Agricultural Research Institute during 2007 and 2009 to find out suitable rice genotypes for drip irrigation. Irrigation drip laterals with an emitter discharge rate of 2 L h-1 and emitter spacing of 0.30 m were used each plot. Distances between laterals was 80 cm. As a two years mean 789 mm water was given with drip irrigation (including seasonal rainfall). According to two year means, Akceltik had the lowest days to flowering and days to maturity with 85 and 116 days respectively, Aromatik-1 had the highest days to flowering with 102 days and YRF-203 had the highest days to maturity with 133 days respectively. Akceltik had the highest plant height with 98.1 cm and Kiziltan had the lowest plant height with 65.8 cm. YRF-203 had the longest panicle with 20.08 cm. Cultivar Edirne had the highest brown rice yield with 81.45% and Cultivar Gonen had the highest total rice yield with 70.76%. On the other hand Veneria had the highest head rice yield with 61.88%.The number of fertile panicle per square meter was the highest at cultivar Aromatik-1 (264/ m2). Genotype YRF-203 attained highest percentage of sterile spikelet (37.55%) while Akçeltik produced lowest percentage of sterile spikelet (8.83%). Maximum 1000 kernel weight was obtained from cultivar Negis. The genotype Veneria gained the highest biological yield (1.568 t/ha). Percentage of harvest index was the highest in genotype Kiziltan (47.5%) while it was lowest in genotype YRF-203 (21.3%). The highest yield (6.517 t/ha) was obtained with Duragan rice variety, it followed by Osmancik-97, Halilbey and Kiziltan with 6.238, 6.231 and 5.980 t/ha yield respectively. From this study, it was found that that Duragan, Osmancik-97 and Halilbey rice cultivars are adaptable for drip irrigation and these varieties could be grown under drip irrigation conditions with using about 50% less water than the flooded irrigation conditions. © 2015, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

Aydin I.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Gokoglu N.,Akdeniz University
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature and time of freezing on lipid oxidation in anchovy during frozen storage. The fish were frozen at three different temperatures (-20, -40, and -80°C). During the freezing, temperature of the thermal center of fish was measured using a thermo couple and then time of freezing was calculated. Frozen fish were stored in a deep freezer at -18°C for 6 months. The highest freezing velocity and the shortest freezing time were observed for anchovies frozen at -80°C. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbutiric acid (TBA), para-anisidine (p-Av), conjugated diene (CD), and free fatty acid (FFA) values were significantly affected by freezing temperature. Low freezing temperature resulted in low oxidation level. Oxidation levels significantly increased during the storage. The lowest values were determined in the samples frozen at -80°C. The best freezing temperature in terms of delaying of lipid oxidation was found to be -80°C. During frozen storage, lipid oxidation is an important issue for fatty fish, anchovy. During frozen storage, lipid oxidation is an important issue for fatty fish, anchovy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Karaaslan D.,South East Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute | Hatipoglu A.,South East Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute | Turk Z.,South East Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute | Kaya Y.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute
Helia | Year: 2010

This study was conducted in 2009 at the experiment field of the South East Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute in Diyarbakir in order to determine potential sunflower cultivars for irrigated conditions in the region. The cultivars Sanay, P-4223, Alhasa, Pactol, Armada, Sirena, C-70165, Tunca, Isera, Tarsan-1018, and Tr-3080 were tested in the experiment. Important characteristics such as plant height, head diameter, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil content and oil yield were investigated. According to the results, statistical differences were found between the cultivars for 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil content and oil yield at the 5% probability level. The highest seed yield per hectare (4,110.7 kg) was obtained from Pioneer-4223, while the highest oil yield per hectare (139.3 kg) was produced by C-70165. The lowest oil yield per hectare was found in Tr-3080 (610.6 kg), while the lowest seed yield per hectare was found in Tr-3080 (1,790.6 kg). The highest oil content (40.1%) was obtained from Armada and the lowest from Pioneer-4223 with 34.4%. The highest 1000-seed weight (83.7 g) was obtained from Isera and the lowest from Armada with 56.1 g. The highest plant height (249.9 cm) was obtained from C- 70165 and the lowest from Tr-3080 (181.4 cm). The largest head diameter was found in Tunca (17.4 cm) and the smallest in Armada (13.9 cm). Results from this study indicate that Pioneer-4223, Pactol, Isera. C-70165, Tarsan, and Armada can be potential cultivar in terms of yield and the other important characters investigated under the irrigated conditions in Diyarbakir.

Suzer S.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute
Helia | Year: 2010

This research was carried out to determine the seed yield and some yield components of two dwarf hybrids as compared to one standard-height sunflower hybrid (Heitanthus annuus L.) at different nitrogen rates and planting densities. The study was carried out under natural rainfed conditions at the Thrace Agricultural Research Institute In Edirne-Turkey between 1999 and 2001. The experiments were set up in split-split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot treatments were three different-height sunflower hybrids, DW-I, DW-2, and Trakya-80. The sub plots were three levels of nitrogen, 0, 60, and 120 kg N/ha. The sub-sub plots were three planting densities, 10 × 70 (142,850 plants/ha), 15 × 70 (95,230 plants/ ha), and 20 × 70 cm (71,430 plants/ha). Based on marginal economic analyses, the economically optimal seed yield per hectare was obtained at 50 kg N/ ha for DW-I and at 80 kg N/ha for DW-2 and Trakya-80. In all three hybrids, increasing plant densities decreased 1000-seed weight, hull percentage, and head diameter but increased test weight in natural rainfed conditions. The highest seed yield in both dwarf hybrids was obtained with the spacing of 15 × 70 cm (95,230 plants/ha). The results of this research show that nitrogen and plant density have significant effects on seed yield and some yield components of different-height sunflower hybrids.

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