Gatersleben, Germany
Gatersleben, Germany

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Ganal M.W.,TraitGenetics GmbH | Durstewitz G.,TraitGenetics GmbH | Polley A.,TraitGenetics GmbH | Berard A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

SNP genotyping arrays have been useful for many applications that require a large number of molecular markers such as high-density genetic mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection. We report the establishment of a large maize SNP array and its use for diversity analysis and high density linkage mapping. The markers, taken from more than 800,000 SNPs, were selected to be preferentially located in genes and evenly distributed across the genome. The array was tested with a set of maize germplasm including North American and European inbred lines, parent/F1 combinations, and distantly related teosinte material. A total of 49,585 markers, including 33,417 within 17,520 different genes and 16,168 outside genes, were of good quality for genotyping, with an average failure rate of 4% and rates up to 8% in specific germplasm. To demonstrate this array's use in genetic mapping and for the independent validation of the B73 sequence assembly, two intermated maize recombinant inbred line populations - IBM (B73×Mo17) and LHRF (F2×F252) - were genotyped to establish two high density linkage maps with 20,913 and 14,524 markers respectively. 172 mapped markers were absent in the current B73 assembly and their placement can be used for future improvements of the B73 reference sequence. Colinearity of the genetic and physical maps was mostly conserved with some exceptions that suggest errors in the B73 assembly. Five major regions containing non-colinearities were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7 and 9, and are supported by both independent genetic maps. Four additional non-colinear regions were found on the LHRF map only; they may be due to a lower density of IBM markers in those regions or to true structural rearrangements between lines. Given the array's high quality, it will be a valuable resource for maize genetics and many aspects of maize breeding.

Wu F.,Cornell University | Eannetta N.T.,Cornell University | Xu Y.,Cornell University | Plieske J.,TraitGenetics GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2010

Using single-copy conserved ortholog set (COSII) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, we have constructed two genetic maps for diploid Nicotiana species, N. tomentosiformis and N. acuminata, respectively. N. acuminata is phylogenetically closer to N. sylvestris than to N. tomentosiformis, the latter two of which are thought to contribute the S-genome and T-genome, respectively, to the allotetraploid tobacco (N. tabacum L., 2n = 48). A comparison of the two maps revealed a minimum of seven inversions and one translocation subsequent to the divergence of these two diploid species. Further, comparing the diploid maps with a dense tobacco map revealed that the tobacco genome experienced chromosomal rearrangements more frequently than its diploid relatives, supporting the notion of accelerated genome evolution in allotetraploids. Mapped COSII markers permitted the investigation of Nicotiana-tomato syntenic relationships. A minimum of 3 (and up to 10) inversions and 11 reciprocal translocations differentiate the tomato genome from that of the last common ancestor of N. tomentosiformis and N. acuminata. Nevertheless, the marker/gene order is well preserved in 25 conserved syntenic segments. Molecular dating based on COSII sequences suggested that tobacco was formed 1.0MYA or later. In conclusion, these COSII and SSR markers link the cultivated tobacco map to those of wild diploid Nicotiana species and tomato, thus providing a platform for cross-reference of genetic and genomic information among them as well as other solanaceous species including potato, eggplant, pepper and the closely allied coffee (Rubiaceae). Therefore they will facilitate genetic research in the genus Nicotiana. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Sim S.-C.,Ohio State University | Durstewitz G.,TraitGenetics GmbH | Plieske J.,TraitGenetics GmbH | Wieseke R.,TraitGenetics GmbH | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The concurrent development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and next generation sequencing (NGS) has increased the number and density of genetic markers, the efficiency of constructing detailed linkage maps, and our ability to overlay recombination and physical maps of the genome. We developed an array for tomato with 8,784 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) mainly discovered based on NGS-derived transcriptome sequences. Of the SNPs, 7,720 (88%) passed manufacturing quality control and could be scored in tomato germplasm. The array was used to generate high-density linkage maps for three interspecific F2 populations: EXPEN 2000 (Solanum lycopersicum LA0925 x S. pennellii LA0716, 79 individuals), EXPEN 2012 (S. lycopersicum Moneymaker x S. pennellii LA0716, 160 individuals), and EXPIM 2012 (S. lycopersicum Moneymaker x S. pimpinellifolium LA0121, 183 individuals). The EXPEN 2000-SNP and EXPEN 2012 maps consisted of 3,503 and 3,687 markers representing 1,076 and 1,229 unique map positions (genetic bins), respectively. The EXPEN 2000-SNP map had an average marker bin interval of 1.6 cM, while the EXPEN 2012 map had an average bin interval of 0.9 cM. The EXPIM 2012 map was constructed with 4,491 markers (1,358 bins) and an average bin interval of 0.8 cM. All three linkage maps revealed an uneven distribution of markers across the genome. The dense EXPEN 2012 and EXPIM 2012 maps showed high levels of colinearity across all 12 chromosomes, and also revealed evidence of small inversions between LA0716 and LA0121. Physical positions of 7,666 SNPs were identified relative to the tomato genome sequence. The genetic and physical positions were mostly consistent. Exceptions were observed for chromosomes 3, 10 and 12. Comparing genetic positions relative to physical positions revealed that genomic regions with high recombination rates were consistent with the known distribution of euchromatin across the 12 chromosomes, while very low recombination rates were observed in the heterochromatic regions. © 2012 Sim et al.

Sim S.-C.,Ohio State University | van Deynze A.,University of California at Davis | Stoffel K.,University of California at Davis | Douches D.S.,Michigan State University | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The effects of selection on genome variation were investigated and visualized in tomato using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. 7,720 SNPs were genotyped on a collection of 426 tomato accessions (410 inbreds and 16 hybrids) and over 97% of the markers were polymorphic in the entire collection. Principal component analysis (PCA) and pairwise estimates of Fst supported that the inbred accessions represented seven sub-populations including processing, large-fruited fresh market, large-fruited vintage, cultivated cherry, landrace, wild cherry, and S. pimpinellifolium. Further divisions were found within both the contemporary processing and fresh market sub-populations. These sub-populations showed higher levels of genetic diversity relative to the vintage sub-population. The array provided a large number of polymorphic SNP markers across each sub-population, ranging from 3,159 in the vintage accessions to 6,234 in the cultivated cherry accessions. Visualization of minor allele frequency revealed regions of the genome that distinguished three representative sub-populations of cultivated tomato (processing, fresh market, and vintage), particularly on chromosomes 2, 4, 5, 6, and 11. The PCA loadings and Fst outlier analysis between these three sub-populations identified a large number of candidate loci under positive selection on chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) was examined within each chromosome for these sub-populations. LD decay varied between chromosomes and sub-populations, with large differences reflective of breeding history. For example, on chromosome 11, decay occurred over 0.8 cM for processing accessions and over 19.7 cM for fresh market accessions. The observed SNP variation and LD decay suggest that different patterns of genetic variation in cultivated tomato are due to introgression from wild species and selection for market specialization. © 2012 Sim et al.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.2-04 | Award Amount: 4.89M | Year: 2012

ADAPTAWHEAT will show how flowering time variation can be exploited for the genetic improvement of the European wheat crop to optimise adaptation and performance in the light of predicted climate change. It will test current hypotheses that postulate specific changes in ear emergence and the timing and duration of developmental phases, which are thought of as components of ear emergence, will improve wheat productivity. Precise genetic stocks varying in specific flowering time elements and subjected to genotyping and characterisation with diagnostic markers for key flowering time genes will be used to test these hypotheses. They will be phenotyped at the molecular (transcript abundance), physiological (growth stage dissection) and agronomic (yield components) levels in multiple field trials located at sites in Europe that represent regional agricultural diversity and at non European locations that have mega environments of relevance. Controlled environment experiments will investigate specific environmental interactions including day length, ambient temperature, and heat stress. Data analysis will aid the construction of new wheat flowering models that can be used to refine existing hypotheses. They will allow standing genetic variation for flowering time in European germplasm to be deployed more efficiently in wheat breeding programmes. This knowledge will be used to inform searches for specific phenotypic and molecular variants in diverse and non adapted wheat germplasm panels provided by consortium members. Vital novel genetic variation will be efficiently imported into the germplasm of European wheat breeders. The project will deliver new diagnostic markers for genotyping, molecular reporters for novel breeding selection strategies and the tools and knowledge necessary for a combined physiology and genomics led predictive wheat breeding programme. A conduit for these outcomes will be three SMEs, who will exploit the tools developed to deliver these outcomes.

Kollers S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Kollers S.,KWS LOCHOW GMBH | Rodemann B.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Ling J.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

A total of 358 recent European winter wheat varieties plus 14 spring wheat varieties were evaluated for resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum in four separate environments. The FHB scores based on FHB incidence (Type I resistance)×FHB severity (Type II resistance) indicated a wide phenotypic variation of the varieties with BLUE (best linear unbiased estimation) values ranging from 0.07 to 33.67. Genotyping with 732 microsatellite markers resulted in 782 loci of which 620 were placed on the ITMI map. The resulting average marker distance of 6.8 cM allowed genome wide association mapping employing a mixed model. Though no clear population structure was discovered, a kinship matrix was used for stratification. A total of 794 significant (-log10(p)-value≥3.0) associations between SSR-loci and environment-specific FHB scores or BLUE values were detected, which included 323 SSR alleles. For FHB incidence and FHB severity a total of 861 and 877 individual marker-trait associations (MTA) were detected, respectively. Associations for both traits co-located with FHB score in most cases. Consistent associations detected in three or more environments were found on all chromosomes except chromosome 6B, and with the highest number of MTA on chromosome 5B. The dependence of the number of favourable and unfavourable alleles within a variety to the respective FHB scores indicated an additive effect of favourable and unfavourable alleles, i.e. genotypes with more favourable or less unfavourable alleles tended to show greater resistance to FHB. Assessment of a marker specific for the dwarfing gene Rht-D1 resulted in strong effects. The results provide a prerequisite for designing genome wide breeding strategies for FHB resistance. © 2013 Kollers et al.

PubMed | TU Munich, University of Hohenheim, TraitGenetics GmbH, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research and KWS SAAT SE
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2016

We have developed a SNP array for sunflower containing more than 25 K markers, representing single loci mostly in or near transcribed regions of the genome. The array was successfully applied to genotype a diversity panel of lines, hybrids, and mapping populations and represented well the genetic diversity of cultivated sunflower. Results of PCoA and population substructure analysis underlined the complexity of the genetic composition of current elite breeding material. The performance of this genotyping platform for genome-based prediction of phenotypes and detection of QTL with improved resolution could be demonstrated based on the re-evaluation of a population segregating for resistance to Sclerotinia midstalk rot. Given our results, the newly developed 25 K SNP array is expected to be of great utility for the most important applications in genome-based sunflower breeding and research.Genotyping with a large number of molecular markers is a prerequisite to conduct genome-based genetic analyses with high precision. Here, we report the design and performance of a 25 K SNP genotyping array for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). SNPs were discovered based on variant calling in de novo assembled, UniGene-based contigs of sunflower derived from whole genome sequencing and amplicon sequences originating from four and 48 inbred lines, respectively. After inclusion of publically available transcriptome-derived SNPs, in silico design of the Illumina() Infinium iSelect HD BeadChip yielded successful assays for 22,299 predominantly haplotype-specific SNPs. The array was validated in a sunflower diversity panel including inbred lines, open-pollinated varieties, introgression lines, landraces, recombinant inbred lines, and F2 populations. Validation provided 20,502 high-quality bi-allelic SNPs with stable cluster performance whereby each SNP marker represents a single locus mostly in or near transcribed regions of the sunflower genome. Analyses of population structure and quantitative resistance to Sclerotinia midstalk rot demonstrate that this array represents a significant improvement over currently available genomic tools for genetic diversity analyses, genome-wide marker-trait association studies, and genetic mapping in sunflower.

Bindler G.,Philip Morris International | Plieske J.,TraitGenetics GmbH | Bakaher N.,Philip Morris International | Gunduz I.,Philip Morris International | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a species in the large family of the Solanaceae and is important as an agronomic crop and as a model system in plant biotechnology. Despite its importance, only limited molecular marker resources are available that can be used for genome analysis, genetic mapping and breeding. We report here on the development and characterization of 5,119 new and functional microsatellite markers and on the generation of a high-resolution genetic map for the tetraploid tobacco genome. The genetic map was generated using an F2 mapping population derived from the intervarietal cross of Hicks Broadleaf × Red Russian and merges the polymorphic markers from this new set with those from a smaller set previously used to produce a lower density map. The genetic map described here contains 2,317 microsatellite markers and 2,363 loci, resulting in an average distance between mapped microsatellite markers which is less than 2 million base pairs or 1.5 cM. With this new and expanded marker resource, a suYcient number of markers are now available for multiple applications ranging from tobacco breeding to comparative genome analysis. The genetic map of tobacco is now comparable in marker density and resolution with the best characterized genomes of the Solanaceae: tomato and potato. © The Author(s) 2011.

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