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Deka Bhuyan P.,North East Institute of Science and Technology NEIST | Chutia M.,North East Institute of Science and Technology NEIST | Chutia M.,Training Institute | Pathak M.G.,North East Institute of Science and Technology NEIST | Baruah P.,North East Institute of Science and Technology NEIST
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2010

Sheath blight and brown spot disease of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Bipolaris oryzae causes significant yield loss in rice production worldwide. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of two essential oils (EOs) from Lippia geminata and Cymbopogon jwarancusa on in vitro growth and sporulation of these two pathogens. The fungal radial growth was inhibited at very low concentration (25 ppm) of the EOs. Similarly, fungal spore production was also inhibited up to ≥80% at 500 ppm of EOs. However, fungal sporulation was completely retarded at 1,000 ppm of L. geminata EO. Very low oil concentrations (10 ppm) accelerated the radial growth (0-5 mm) and spore germination (3.5-8.5%) of the pathogens. At higher oil concentrations, the mycelial growth and spore productions were completely inhibited. The IC 50 value of the EO of C. jwarancusa was 365.45 and 336.74 ppm and for L. geminata, it was 420.16 and 481.47 ppm against B. oryzae and R. solani, respectively. GC-MS analysis of the oils showed 54.36% piperitone and 30.86% α-phellandrene as major compounds in C. jwarancusa whereas 25.9% geranial and 14.6% neral in L. geminata oil. Essential oils from Lippia geminata and Cymbopogon jwarancusa appear to be good candidates for the in vitro control of these two rice pathogens and can be successfully utilized in management strategies of pathogens in appropriate formulation. © 2010 AOCS. Source

Suresh G.,Training Institute | Ananthanarayana R.,AMSE | Hanumanthu R.C.,Sv University | Ghosh S.,Geochronology Division
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2010

Geological studies on saturated to oversaturated and subsolvus aegirine-riebeckite syenite bodies of the Pulikonda alkaline complex and Dancherla alkaline complex were carried out. The REE distribution of the Dancherla syenite shows a high fractionation between LREE and HREE. The absence of Eu anomaly suggests source from garnet peridotite. The Pulikonda syenite shows moderate fractionation between LREE and HREE as reflected by enrichment of HREE and moderate enrichment of LREE. The negative Eu anomaly indicates role of plagioclase fractionation.Three distinct co-eval primary magmas i.e. mafic syenite-, felsic syenite- and alkali basalt magmas - all derived from low-degrees of partial melting of mantle differentiates and enriched metasomatised lower crust played a major role in the genesis and emplacement of the syenites into overlying crust along deep seated regional scale trans-lithospheric strike-slip faults and shear zones following immediately after late-Archaean calc-alkaline arc magmatism at different time-space episodes i.e. initially at craton margin and later on into the thickened interior of the Eastern Dharwar craton. The ductile sheared and folded Pulikonda alkaline complex was evolved dominantly from the magmas derived from partial melting of lower crust and minor juvenile magmas from mantle. Differentiation and fractionation by liquid immiscibility of mafic magma and commingling-mixing of intermediate and felsic magmas followed by fractionational crystallisation under extensional tectonics during waning stages of calc-alkaline arc magmatism nearer to the craton margin were attributed as the main processes for the genesis of Pulikonda syenite complex. Commingling and limited mixing of independent mantle derived mafic and felsic syenitic magmas and accompanying fractionation resulting into soda rich and potash rich syenite variants was tentatively deduced mechanism for the origin of Dancherla, Danduvaripalle, Reddypalle syenites and other bodies belonging to Dancherla alkaline complex at the craton interior. The Peddavaduguru syenite was formed by differentiation of alkali mafic magma (gabbro to diorite) and it's simultaneous mingling with fractionated felsic syenitic magma under incipient rift. Vannedoddi and Yeguvapalli syenites were derived due to desilicification and accompanying alkali feldspar mestasomatism of younger potash rich granites along Guntakal-Gooty fault and along Singanamala shear zone respectively. Dancherla syenite body has yielded a six point Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 2211±110 Ma with low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7004±0.00046; MSWD = 5.8.The low initial Sr(i) ratio suggests mantle derived juvenile additions to the crust. The Pulikonda syenite body yielded a six point whole rock isochron age of 1500 ±100 Ma with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7085±0.0047 and MSWD = 2%. The higher initial Sr(i) value for this body suggests metasomatised source. Resetting of Rb-Sr systematics has resulted younger age for Pulikonda syenite though it is supposed to be older as per the geological setting and this anomaly is interpreted interms of repeated deformation and reactivation of shear zone, emplacement of alkali granite into Pulikonda syenite and the role of Rudravaram shear zone (basement tectonics) in the formation of the Nallamali fold belt of the Cuddapah Basin. Alkaline magmatism was initially triggered along microplate margin tectonic setting and later confined to the intraplate tectonic setting. © GEOL. SOC. INDIA. Source

Fareeduddin,RSAS Wing | Gupta S.,RSAS Wing | Golani P.R.,Training Institute | Kirmani I.R.,Operations Rajasthan | Chander S.,F Wz Inc.
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2010

Petrology and mineral chemistry of ten types of tourmalines from Pb-Zn bearing strata-bound exhalative deposits and Cu-Au-Fe deposits, presumably of IOCG-type, from Rajasthan are presented. The Pb-Zn deposits studied include Agucha, Kayar and Dariba areas in central Rajasthan, each of which is widely separated in space and occurs in isolated but coeval basins within the Archaean basement. The Cu-Au deposits include Ghagri, Bada Talav, Dugocha and Bhukia areas in southeast Rajasthan. The syngenetic Pb-Zn type and the epigenetic Cu-Au-Fe type of deposits are formed during the initial phase of Paleoproterozoic Aravalli Basin evolution with dominant deposition of shelf facies pelite-carbonate sequence of Debari Group. The post-depositional tectono-metamorphic history of the host rocks of Pb-Zn type and Cu-Au type deposits differ significantly with the former deposits showing higher metamorphic impress (amphibolite to lower granulite facies) than the latter (green schist facies). This study suggests that tourmalines on individual deposit scale exhibit both similarities and differences in optical and chemical features that are in accordance to their bulk host mineral assemblages. But on individual belt-scale, despite significant differences in the post-depositional metamorphic alterations, there is an overall chemical similarity of tourmalines that suggests prevalence of similar hydrothermal conditions during the formation of the tourmalines of individual deposits in each of the Pb-Zn and Cu-Au belts. In many of the discriminant diagrams using the critical elements, the tourmalines of these two belts maintain a distinct identity and assert their role as metal-type indicator in contemporaneous (Paleoproterozoic) deposits formed in different hydrothermal conditions. This study also tests the reported role of tetrahedral alumina (Aliv) and X-site vacancies (X □) in the tourmaline in indicating the grade of metamorphism of the host rocks. Whereas this study confirms the assertions regarding the covariance of Aliv with respect to the grade of metamorphism in calcareous and metapelitic sediments, the same assertions could not be made in respect of X□ for the tourmalines from different ore deposits of Rajasthan. The latter is attributed to the diffusion of Na+ in the tourmaline structure from the abundantly available Na-rich host rocks (albitites) in a post-ore formation event. © 2010 Geological Society of India. Source

Navarro-Polanco R.A.,University of Colima | Galindo E.G.M.,University of Colima | Ferrer-Villada T.,Training Institute | Arias M.,Training Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2011

Muscarinic receptors were recently shown to be modulated by membrane potential. Here, we show that membrane potential alters the binding of agonists in an agonist-specific manner. Moreover, agonist binding results in agonist-specific conformational changes in the muscarinic receptor, as measured by changes in the receptor's response to voltage. Voltage-dependent modulation of muscarinic receptors has important consequences for cellular signalling in excitable tissues and implications for cardiovascular drug development. Abstract The ability to sense transmembrane voltage is a central feature of many membrane proteins, most notably voltage-gated ion channels. Gating current measurements provide valuable information on protein conformational changes induced by voltage. The recent observation that muscarinic G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) generate gating currents confirms their intrinsic capacity to sense the membrane electrical field. Here, we studied the effect of voltage on agonist activation of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2R) in atrial myocytes and how agonist binding alters M2R gating currents. Membrane depolarization decreased the potency of acetylcholine (ACh), but increased the potency and efficacy of pilocarpine (Pilo), as measured by ACh-activated K+ current, IKACh. Voltage-induced conformational changes in M2R were modified in a ligand-selective manner: ACh reduced gating charge displacement while Pilo increased the amount of charge displaced. Thus, these ligands manifest opposite voltage-dependent IKACh modulation and exert opposite effects on M2R gating charge displacement. Finally, mutations in the putative ligand binding site perturbed the movement of the M2R voltage sensor. Our data suggest that changes in voltage induce conformational changes in the ligand binding site that alter the agonist-receptor interaction in a ligand-dependent manner. Voltage-dependent GPCR modulation has important implications for cellular signalling in excitable tissues. Gating current measurement allows for the tracking of subtle conformational changes in the receptor that accompany agonist binding and changes in membrane voltage. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 The Physiological Society. Source

Ojikutu B.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Ojikutu B.,Training Institute | Nnaji C.,Multicultural AIDS Coalition | Sithole J.,Bureau of Infectious Diseases Preventiona and Services Refugee | And 4 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2013

Non-U.S.-born black individuals comprise a significant proportion of the new diagnoses of HIV in the United States. Concurrent diagnosis (obtaining an AIDS diagnosis in close proximity to an initial diagnosis of HIV) is common in this subpopulation. Although efforts have been undertaken to increase HIV testing among African Americans, little is known about testing patterns among non-U.S.-born black people. A cross-sectional survey was self-administered by 1060 black individuals in Massachusetts (57% non-U.S.-born) to assess self-reported rates of HIV testing, risk factors, and potential barriers to testing, including stigma, knowledge, immigration status, and access to health care. Bivariate analysis comparing responses by birthplace and multivariate logistic regression assessing correlates of recent testing were completed. Non-U.S.-born individuals were less likely to report recent testing than U.S.-born (41.9% versus 55.6%, p<0.0001). Of those who recently tested, the majority did so for immigration purposes, not because of perceived risk. Stigma was significantly higher and knowledge lower among non-U.S.-born individuals. In multivariate analysis, greater length of time since immigration was a significant predictor of nontesting among non-U.S.-born (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.87). Poor health care access and older age were correlated to nontesting in both U.S.-and non-U.S.-born individuals. Our findings indicate that differences in HIV testing patterns exist by nativity. Efforts addressing unique factors limiting testing in non-U.S.-born black individuals are warranted. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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